What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines

Le, Hai Dinh, Smith, Carl and Herbohn, John (2014) What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines. Global Environmental Change, 24 1: 334-348. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.09.010

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Author Le, Hai Dinh
Smith, Carl
Herbohn, John
Title What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines
Journal name Global Environmental Change   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0959-3780
Publication date 2014
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.09.010
Open Access Status
Volume 24
Issue 1
Start page 334
End page 348
Total pages 15
Place of publication Kidlington, Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Formatted abstract
• Many technical, physical, socio-economic and institutional factors affect reforestation success.
• We surveyed 43 reforestation projects to identify key factors affecting success and failure.
• Revegetation method, livelihoods and forest protection are key systemic success drivers.

In response to substantial deforestation over many decades, large scale reforestation programs are being implemented across many tropical developing countries. Examples include the United Nations Billion Trees Campaign, the National Greening Program in the Philippines, and the 5 million ha reforestation program in Vietnam. However, while substantial investments are being made in reforestation, little information exists on the drivers influencing reforestation success and how these interact to determine environmental and socio-economic outcomes. In this study we surveyed 43 reforestation projects on Leyte Island, The Philippines to identify the drivers that most influence reforestation success as measured by key indicators drawn from the literature, including interactions between drivers and between drivers and indicators. We investigated 98 potential success drivers, including technical and biophysical factors; socio-economic factors; institutional, policy and management factors; and reforestation project characteristics. We also measured 12 success indicators, including forest establishment, forest growth, environmental and socio-economic success indicators. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to identify significant relationships among drivers and indicators and this analysis was used to develop a system of driver and indicator relationships. Based on this we found that revegetation method, funding source, education and awareness campaigns, the dependence of local people on forests, reforestation incentives, project objectives, forest protection mechanisms and the condition of road infrastructure were highly connected drivers that influenced multiple success indicators either directly or indirectly. We conclude that policies targeting revegetation methods, socioeconomic incentives, forest protection mechanisms, sustainable livelihoods, diversification of funding and partnerships, technical support, and infrastructure development are likely to have a broad systemic and beneficial effect on the success of reforestation programs in tropical developing countries.
Keyword Reforestation
Success drivers
Success indicators
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
Official 2014 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 11 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 13 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Mon, 21 Oct 2013, 14:35:57 EST by Dr John Herbohn on behalf of School of Agriculture and Food Sciences