Action systems have been shown to be applicable for modelling and constructing systems in both discrete and hybrid domains. We present a novel semantics for action systems using a sampling logic that facilitates reasoning about the truly concurrent behaviour between an action system and its environment. By reasoning over the apparent states, the sampling logic allows one to determine whether a state predicate is definitely or possibly true over an interval. We present a semantics for action systems that allows the time taken to sample inputs and evaluate expressions (and hence guards) into account. We develop a temporal logic based on the sampling logic that facilitates formalisation of safety, progress, timing and transient properties. Then, we incorporate this logic to the method of enforced properties, which facilitates stepwise refinement of action systems.