Modeling cadmium exposures in low- and high-exposure areas in Thailand

Satarug, Soisungwan, Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan, Nishijo, Muneko and Ruiz, Patricia (2013) Modeling cadmium exposures in low- and high-exposure areas in Thailand. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121 5: 531-536. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104769


Author Satarug, Soisungwan
Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya
Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan
Nishijo, Muneko
Ruiz, Patricia
Title Modeling cadmium exposures in low- and high-exposure areas in Thailand
Journal name Environmental Health Perspectives   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0091-6765
1552-9924
Publication date 2013-05
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1289/ehp.1104769
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 121
Issue 5
Start page 531
End page 536
Total pages 6
Place of publication Research Triangle Park, NC, United States
Publisher US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Formatted abstract
 Background: Previous U.S. population modeling studies have reported that urinary cadmium (Cd) excretion patterns differ with age, sex, and dietary exposure; associations between Cd exposures and health outcomes also have differed by age and sex. Therefore, it is important to test models used to estimate Cd exposures across an expanded Cd-exposure range.

Objectives: We estimated relative Cd exposures from both diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios to provide data for improving risk assessment calculations.

Methods: We used a Cd toxicokinetic–based model to estimate Cd exposures based on urinary Cd levels measured for 399 persons in a low-exposure area (Bangkok) and 6,747 persons in a high-exposure area (Mae Sot) in Thailand.

Results: In Bangkok, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 50–56 µg/day for males and 21–27 µg/day for females 20–59 years of age who never smoked. In Mae Sot, we estimated dietary Cd exposures of 188–224 µg/day for males and 99–113 µg/day for females 20–59 years of age who never smoked. In Bangkok, we estimated Cd exposures from smoking to be 5.5–20.4 µg/day for male smokers 20–59 years of age. In Mae Sot, we estimated Cd exposures from smoking to be 9.8–26 µg/day for male heavy smokers and 26 µg/day for female heavy smokers.

Conclusion: This study provides estimates of Cd exposures from diet and smoking in low- and high-exposure scenarios. Our findings suggest a relatively small safety margin between the established tolerable Cd reference exposure of 62 µg/day and exposure levels previously associated with evidence of kidney and bone effects in Mae Sot residents, where dietary Cd exposures among women were only 1.6–2.1 times the reference value.
Keyword Cadmium
Computerized predictive model
Diet
Exposure source
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
 
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