Forensic practitioners are beginning to acknowledge that there is more to identifying trace evidence than the methodology on which they rely. Instead, identification is based on human decision making, which is prone to error. The problem is that we know very little about how these decisions are made, how often errors arise, what to do about them if they occur, and how to acknowledge the risk of error in courts. Dealing with errors in forensic science is not simply a matter of ‘getting rid of the bad apples’. Instead, we must develop resilient systems that identify and enhance the positive capacities of people and organisations that allow them to adapt effectively under pressure. The recognition of error in forensic practice is an excellent first step in strengthening the field, but ‘more and better research’ still needs to be conducted to understand better the nature of expertise in identification to improve training and the value of expert testimony.