Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics

Chen, Jiezhong, Shao, Renfu, Zhang, Xu Dong and Chen, Chen (2013) Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8 2677-2688. doi:10.2147/IJN.S45429


Author Chen, Jiezhong
Shao, Renfu
Zhang, Xu Dong
Chen, Chen
Title Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics
Journal name International Journal of Nanomedicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1178-2013
1176-9114
Publication date 2013-07
Year available 2013
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.2147/IJN.S45429
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 8
Start page 2677
End page 2688
Total pages 12
Place of publication Macclesfield, United Kingdom
Publisher Dove Medical Press
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. However, metastasized melanoma is difficult to cure. The 5-year survival rates for patients with metastasized melanoma are still below 20%. Metastasized melanoma is currently treated by chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy. The outcome of most of the current therapies is far from optimistic. Although melanoma patients with a mutation in the oncogene v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) have an initially higher positive response rate to targeted therapy, the majority develop acquired drug resistance after 6 months of the therapy. To increase treatment efficacy, early diagnosis, more potent pharmacological agents, and more effective delivery systems are urgently needed. Nanotechnology has been extensively studied for melanoma treatment and diagnosis, to decrease drug resistance, increase therapeutic efficacy, and reduce side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the development of various nanoparticles for melanoma treatment and diagnosis. Several common nanoparticles, including liposome, polymersomes, dendrimers, carbon-based nanoparticles, and human albumin, have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, and small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) against signaling molecules have also been tested for the treatment of melanoma. Indeed, several nanoparticle-delivered drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and are currently in clinical trials. The application of nanoparticles could produce side effects, which will need to be reduced so that nanoparticle-delivered drugs can be safely applied in the clinical setting.
Keyword Metastasis
Early detection
Nanoparticle-delivered
PI3K/Akt
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
 
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