This research identified exposure pathways for coal seam gas (CSG) water in Queensland and ranked the pathways according to water quality, potential volume of exposure, potential quality of the exposure and the size of potentially exposed populations. Concerns about rapid growth of the CSG industry in Queensland and the large volume of potentially hazardous water that is co-produced during gas production warranted evaluation of CSG water exposure pathways. The results of this investigation indicated that the pathways of most concern were through the exposure to untreated CSG water via (1) contamination of shallow aquifers, (2) discharge into rivers, and the potential for (3) indirect exposure through dairy and stock animals. However, there was considerable uncertainty in the evaluation of these exposure pathways, because the data on contaminant concentrations in untreated CSG water in Queensland was very limited. Additionally, the amount of exposure through each pathway, the bioaccumulation of hazards, and the limited monitoring information on treatment effectiveness prevented the completion of a health risk assessment. To close these knowledge gaps, a more systematic collection and analysis of monitoring data for both untreated and treated CSG water releases will be required. It is hoped that the methodology developed here to integrate available information from release source to potentially exposed populations could be further refined for different levels of detail and provide for improved ‘evidence-based’ decision-making by health policy makers, regulators and industry.