Adopting a ‘critical’ approach to militant sub-state activism, this thesis investigates the many faces of Hamas and situates the movement at a localised level, away from the hyperbolic discourses of the United States-led ‘war on terror’. This thesis, in essence, examines Hamas’ ongoing evolution as a resistance organisation within the context of Palestine/Israel. In particular, the thesis interrogates Hamas’ interpretation, reinterpretation and application of the twin concepts of muqawama (resistance) and jihad (striving in the name of Allah). Moving beyond the dominant security-orientated approaches to Hamas and the Islamic movement in the Palestinian Territories, this thesis investigates the polysemic nature of these concepts to include their social, political and ideational applications. Where possible, this project attempts to privilege first-order knowledge and experiential elucidations emanating from the movement itself, its political representatives and, indeed, the Palestinian population in general. Many of these accounts were collected by the author during two periods of fieldwork in the Middle East region, predominantly situated in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, but also including time throughout the wider region as necessary. The author has attempted to engage in a ‘dialogic’ yet critical approach to the movement itself, its supporters and sympathisers, as well as the population in general, in order to render a more localised and humanised account of the movement and its place within Palestinian society. The humanisation of Hamas is imperative because the movement’s message resonates with large segments of the Palestinian community and it is, thus, an integral component to any long-term solution to the Palestine/Israel conflict. Demonization and isolation, in contrast, pre-empts constructive engagement and, ultimately, the chance of peaceful coexistence between the two nations inhabiting the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea.