Reference ranges and biological variation of free and total serum indoxyl- and p-cresyl sulphate measured with a rapid UPLC fluorescence detection method

Pretorius, Carel J., McWhinney, Brett C., Sipinkoski, Bilyana, Johnson, Lambro A., Rossi, Megan, Campbell, Katrina L. and Ungerer, Jacobus P. J. (2013) Reference ranges and biological variation of free and total serum indoxyl- and p-cresyl sulphate measured with a rapid UPLC fluorescence detection method. Clinica Chimica Acta, 419 122-126. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2013.02.008


Author Pretorius, Carel J.
McWhinney, Brett C.
Sipinkoski, Bilyana
Johnson, Lambro A.
Rossi, Megan
Campbell, Katrina L.
Ungerer, Jacobus P. J.
Title Reference ranges and biological variation of free and total serum indoxyl- and p-cresyl sulphate measured with a rapid UPLC fluorescence detection method
Journal name Clinica Chimica Acta   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0009-8981
1873-3492
Publication date 2013-04-18
Year available 2013
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/j.cca.2013.02.008
Volume 419
Start page 122
End page 126
Total pages 5
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Introduction: The uremic toxins indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (pCS) are absorbed bacterial metabolites of tryptophan and tyrosine respectively and may be predictive of clinical outcome. Long chromatography times, incomplete data on the reference ranges of the free and total fractions and the biological variation limit wider clinical application.

Methods: An UPLC method with fluorescence detection was developed and reference ranges and biological variation were investigated in healthy volunteers.

Results: Chromatography time was 3 min with excellent linearity, precision and low detection limits (IS of 0.02 μmol/L and pCS of 0.05 μmol/L). Both IS and pCS increased with a decrease in renal function and were moderately correlated with eGFR (R2 0.65 and 0.33 respectively). The serum reference ranges were (μmol/L): total IS of 0.7–6.3; free IS of 0.0–0.2; total pCS of 0.0–38.4; and free pCS of 0.1–2.4. The intra individual biological variation was estimated at 35.9% and 50.5% with a critical difference of 3.9 μmol/L (100%) and 20.7 μmol/L (141%) for total IS and pCS respectively.

Conclusion: We describe a robust analytical method with a short chromatography time that quantifies both IS and pCS. The data on reference ranges and intra-individual biological variation need to be considered in clinical studies that investigate these uremic toxins.
Keyword Uremic toxin
Renal failure
Haemodialysis
Chromatography
Biological variation
Reference range
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
 
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