This commentary explores some of the key issues facing the modern cellist who wishes to perform a transcription of Bach’s gamba sonatas. Three key areas of discussion are identified. First, the differences between the modern cello and the viola da gamba are considered with respect to their effect on a performance of these works. Issues in relation to posture, fingering, tuning, intonation, and pitch levels, as well as the differing articulatory tendencies of the Tourte and pre-Tourte bows, are discussed in detail. These issues are contextualised by an introductory overview of the physical differences between the instruments. Second, editorial practices as seen in the three performing editions published by Faber, Henle, and Peters are considered. A comparison of the manuscript sources used in the compilation of the editions is made and briefly discussed. This enables the discussion of points of difference for five areas, which are illustrated through examples. These five areas are note pitch, note beaming and grouping, articulation, ornamentation, and chord revoicing. The third area for discussion is interpretation, particularly as seen through Haynes’s concept of ‘performing protocol’. This section considers articulation, ornamentation, and chord revoicing, and provides several examples that demonstrate editorial practices and the effects of these practices on musical interpretation. Both Modern and Historically Informed Modern performing protocols are considered, as these are both viable protocols for a performance of the gamba sonatas on the modern cello. Finally, the editions are considered against a cellist’s choices and decisions about a performing protocol for this repertoire.