Development and validation of a pregnancy symptoms inventory

Foxcroft, Katie F., Callaway, Leonie K., Byrne, Nuala M. and Webster, Joan (2013) Development and validation of a pregnancy symptoms inventory. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 13 3: 3.1-3.9. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-13-3

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Author Foxcroft, Katie F.
Callaway, Leonie K.
Byrne, Nuala M.
Webster, Joan
Title Development and validation of a pregnancy symptoms inventory
Journal name BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1471-2393
Publication date 2013-01
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1186/1471-2393-13-3
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 13
Issue 3
Start page 3.1
End page 3.9
Total pages 9
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: Physical symptoms are common in pregnancy and are predominantly associated with normal physiological changes. These symptoms have a social and economic cost, leading to absenteeism from work and additional medical interventions. There is currently no simple method for identifying common pregnancy related problems in the antenatal period. A validated tool, for use by pregnancy care providers would be useful. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Pregnancy Symptoms Inventory for use by health professionals.

Methods: A list of symptoms was generated via expert consultation with health professionals. Focus groups were conducted with pregnant women. The inventory was tested for face validity and piloted for readability and comprehension. For test-re-test reliability, the tool was administered to the same women 2 to 3 days apart. Finally, midwives trialled the inventory for 1 month and rated its usefulness on a 10cm visual analogue scale (VAS).

A 41-item Likert inventory assessing how often symptoms occurred and what effect they had, was developed. Individual item test re-test reliability was between .51 to 1, the majority (34 items) scoring ≥0.70. The top four “often” reported symptoms were urinary frequency (52.2%), tiredness (45.5%), poor sleep (27.5%) and back pain (19.5%). Among the women surveyed, 16.2% claimed to sometimes or often be incontinent. Referrals to the incontinence nurse increased > 8 fold during the study period.

Conclusions: The PSI provides a comprehensive inventory of pregnancy related symptoms, with a mechanism for assessing their effect on function. It was robustly developed, with good test re-test reliability, face validity, comprehension and readability. This provides a validated tool for assessing the impact of interventions in pregnancy.
Keyword Checklist
Pregnancy symptoms
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 2 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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