Turbulence and aeration in hydraulic jumps: free-surface fluctuation and integral turbulent scale measurements
Gangfu Zhang, Hang Wang and Chanson, Hubert (2013) Turbulence and aeration in hydraulic jumps: free-surface fluctuation and integral turbulent scale measurements. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 132: 189-204. doi:10.1007/s10652-012-9254-3
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In an open channel, a change from a supercritical to subcritical flow is a strong dissipative process called a hydraulic jump. Herein some new measurements of free-surface fluctuations of the impingement perimeter and integral turbulent time and length scales in the roller are presented with a focus on turbulence in hydraulic jumps with a marked roller. The observations highlighted the fluctuating nature of the impingement perimeter in terms of both longitudinal and transverse locations. The results showed further the close link between the production and detachment of large eddies in jump shear layer, and the longitudinal fluctuations of the jump toe. They highlighted the importance of the impingement perimeter as the origin of the developing shear layer and a source of vorticity. The air–water flow measurements emphasised the intense flow aeration. The turbulent velocity distributions presented a shape similar to a wall jet solution with a marked shear layer downstream of the impingement point. The integral turbulent length scale distributions exhibited a monotonic increase with increasing vertical elevation within 0.2 < Lz/d1 < 0.8 in the shear layer, where Lz is the integral turbulent length scale and d1 the inflow depth, while the integral turbulent time scales were about two orders of magnitude smaller than the period of impingement position longitudinal oscillations.