Ultrastructure and anatomy of Macadamia (Proteaceae) kernels

Walton, David A., Wallace, Helen M. and Webb, Richard (2012) Ultrastructure and anatomy of Macadamia (Proteaceae) kernels. Australian Journal of Botany, 60 4: 291-300. doi:10.1071/BT11148

Author Walton, David A.
Wallace, Helen M.
Webb, Richard
Title Ultrastructure and anatomy of Macadamia (Proteaceae) kernels
Formatted title
Ultrastructure and anatomy of Macadamia (Proteaceae) kernels
Journal name Australian Journal of Botany   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0067-1924
Publication date 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1071/BT11148
Volume 60
Issue 4
Start page 291
End page 300
Total pages 10
Place of publication Collingwood, Vic., Australia
Publisher CSIRO Publishing
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche and M. tetraphylla L.A.S.Johnson, and their hybrids, are cultivated for their edible kernels (mature embryos). Some kernels separate into halves (cotyledons) during post-harvest handling, and embryo cuticular characteristics may influence breakage. Some kernels have a gap between cotyledons before nut cracking, and this anatomical feature may be related to breakage. Kernels from cultivars producing high or low frequency of breakage were examined by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to identify differences in inner-cuticular wax. Whole seeds of each cultivar were opened without cracking to measure gaps between cotyledons and determine relationships between gaps and embryo breakage. Kernels from cultivars with low frequency of breakage had inner-epicuticular wax layers that were of the sculptured crust type whereas those of cultivars with high frequency of breakage were mainly of a wax-film type. Gap width and length of kernels separate at nut opening were more than twice those for intact kernels. There was a negative relationship between whole-kernel percentage and gap width between cotyledons.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis Publications
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 2 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 2 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Thu, 14 Feb 2013, 13:06:32 EST by Dr Richard Webb on behalf of Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis