Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study

Wertheim, Heiman F. L., Dang Minh Ngoc, Wolbers, Marcel, Ta Thi Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh Hai, Nguyen Qunh Loan, Pham Thanh Tu, Sjodin, Andreas, Romanoff, Lovisa, Li, Zheng, Mueller, Jochen F., Kennedy, Karen, Farrar, Jeremy, Stepniewska, Kasia, Horby, Peter, Fox, Annette and Nguyen Duy Bao (2012) Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 11 1: 72.1-72.9. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-11-72


Author Wertheim, Heiman F. L.
Dang Minh Ngoc
Wolbers, Marcel
Ta Thi Binh
Nguyen Thi Thanh Hai
Nguyen Qunh Loan
Pham Thanh Tu
Sjodin, Andreas
Romanoff, Lovisa
Li, Zheng
Mueller, Jochen F.
Kennedy, Karen
Farrar, Jeremy
Stepniewska, Kasia
Horby, Peter
Fox, Annette
Nguyen Duy Bao
Title Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: a demonstration study
Journal name Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1476-069X
Publication date 2012-09
Year available 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1186/1476-069X-11-72
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 11
Issue 1
Start page 72.1
End page 72.9
Total pages 9
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: Urban air pollution is an increasing health problem, particularly in Asia, where the combustion of fossil fuels has increased rapidly as a result of industrialization and socio-economic development. The adverse health impacts of urban air pollution are well established, but less is known about effective intervention strategies. In this demonstration study we set out to establish methods to assess whether wearing an R95 activated carbon respirator could reduce intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in street workers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Methods. In this demonstration study we performed a cross-over study in which non-smoking participants that worked at least 4 hours per day on the street in Hanoi were randomly allocated to specific respirator wearing sequences for a duration of 2 weeks. Urines were collected after each period, i.e. twice per week, at the end of the working day to measure hydroxy PAHs (OH-PAH) using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was the urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP).

Results: Forty-four participants (54.5% male, median age 40 years) were enrolled with the majority being motorbike taxi drivers (38.6%) or street vendors (34.1%). The baseline creatinine corrected urinary level for 1-OHP was much higher than other international comparisons: 1020 ng/g creatinine (IQR: 604-1551). Wearing a R95 mask had no significant effect on 1-OHP levels: estimated multiplicative effect 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09) or other OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN): 0.86 (95% CI: 0.11-0.96).

Conclusions:
High levels of urine OH-PAHs were found in Hanoi street workers. No effect was seen on urine OH-PAH levels by wearing R95 particulate respirators in an area of high urban air pollution, except for 1-OHN. A lack of effect may be de to gaseous phase PAHs that were not filtered efficiently by the respirator. The high levels of urinary OH-PAHs found, urges for effective interventions.
Keyword Urine
Pollution
Urban
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Respirator
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Particulate air pollution
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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