Normative volume difference between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs in healthy older women

Dylke, E. S., Yee, J., Ward, L. C., Foroughi, N. and Kilbreath, S. L. (2012) Normative volume difference between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs in healthy older women. Lymphatic Research and Biology, 10 4: 182-188. doi:10.1089/lrb.2012.0011

Author Dylke, E. S.
Yee, J.
Ward, L. C.
Foroughi, N.
Kilbreath, S. L.
Title Normative volume difference between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs in healthy older women
Journal name Lymphatic Research and Biology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1539-6851
Publication date 2012-12
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1089/lrb.2012.0011
Volume 10
Issue 4
Start page 182
End page 188
Total pages 7
Place of publication New Rochelle, NY, United States
Publisher Mary Ann Liebert
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: Upper limb lymphedema is a possible consequence of the treatment for breast cancer. Accurate detection of swelling is important in implementing appropriate treatment. Currently used diagnostic cut-offs for excess volume have been chosen for ease of use and are not based on normative differences. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the normal inter-limb variance for healthy older women and identify statistically-based diagnostic cut-offs for both circumference and volume.

Methods and Results: Two hundred and four healthy women, over the age of 40 years, with no history of treatment for breast cancer or lymphedema, underwent measurement of their upper limbs with a perometer. Using the associated software, the circumference of the limb was determined at a number of set points along the limb and the volume of the intervening segments recorded. Segment volumes were also calculated from the circumferential measurements using the formulae for a truncated cone and cylinder. The mean inter-limb difference found was small but a large range was seen for all of the circumference and volume measurements. Dominance was found to have a significant effect on the limb size. Regression analysis showed that an individual's age was negatively related to their inter-limb difference. Diagnostic cut-offs, set at three standard deviations above the mean, were determined.

Conclusions: New circumference and volume criteria based on normative data, taking arm dominance into consideration, will allow for more accurate diagnosis of changes in limb volume, allowing treatment to be started and monitored appropriately.
Keyword Breast cancer
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
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Created: Fri, 11 Jan 2013, 13:18:28 EST by Mrs Louise Nimwegen on behalf of School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences