Independent association between age at natural menopause and hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus: Japan nurses' health study

Lee, Jung Su, Hayashi, Kunihiko, Mishra, Gita, Yasui, Toshiyuki, Kubota, Toshiro and Mizunuma, Hideki (2013) Independent association between age at natural menopause and hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus: Japan nurses' health study. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, 20 2: 161-169. doi:10.5551/jat.14746

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Author Lee, Jung Su
Hayashi, Kunihiko
Mishra, Gita
Yasui, Toshiyuki
Kubota, Toshiro
Mizunuma, Hideki
Title Independent association between age at natural menopause and hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus: Japan nurses' health study
Journal name Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1340-3478
1880-3873
Publication date 2013-01-01
Year available 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.5551/jat.14746
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 20
Issue 2
Start page 161
End page 169
Total pages 9
Place of publication Shinbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Publisher Japan Atherosclerosis Society
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Aim: Menopause is considered a cardiovascular risk factor (CRF), but age at menopause (AAM) varies considerably and could affect the risk among post-menopausal women. The aim of the study was to clarify whether AAM is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypercholesterolemia, independent of chronological age, lifestyle and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in a sizeable number of Japanese women.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using the baseline survey of the ongoing large prospective Japan Nurses’ Health Study. The prevalence of hypertension, DM, and hypercholesterolemia of pre-menopausal and three post-menopausal AAM groups (early: <45 years, intermediate: 45-53 years, late: >53 years) was compared among 22,426 women aged 40-59 years. Daily lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were included.

Results: The estimated risk (odds ratio: OR) was significantly higher in post-menopausal women and linearly elevated according to the AAM groups, and the late AAM group was more likely to have hypertension, DM, or hypercholesterolemia; however, after adjustment for age, BMI (kg/m2), HRT and lifestyle, menopause and AAM showed a significant association with only hypercholesterolemia and the early AAM group had the highest OR (2.72 (1.93-3.82)). Menopause and AAM did not show any independent association with the risk of hypertension and DM in the fully adjusted model.

Conclusions: Among the post-menopausal women, early menopause increased the risk for hypercholesterolemia independently. AAM can be a useful screening tool to identify women at high risk for adverse post-menopausal lipid profiles in the Japanese.
Keyword Menopause
Cardiovascular risk factor (CRF)
Hypertension
Diabetes mellitus (DM)
Hypercholesterolemia
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article ID 14746. [Advance Publication] Released 20121019

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
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Created: Mon, 07 Jan 2013, 20:48:36 EST by Geraldine Fitzgerald on behalf of School of Public Health