Predicting skin penetration of actives from complex cosmetic formulations: an evaluation of inter formulation and inter active effects during formulation optimization for transdermal delivery

Wiechers, J. W., Watkinson, A. C., Cross, S. E. and Roberts, M. S. (2012) Predicting skin penetration of actives from complex cosmetic formulations: an evaluation of inter formulation and inter active effects during formulation optimization for transdermal delivery. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 34 6: 525-535. doi:10.1111/ics.12001


Author Wiechers, J. W.
Watkinson, A. C.
Cross, S. E.
Roberts, M. S.
Title Predicting skin penetration of actives from complex cosmetic formulations: an evaluation of inter formulation and inter active effects during formulation optimization for transdermal delivery
Journal name International Journal of Cosmetic Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0142-5463
1468-2494
Publication date 2012-12-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1111/ics.12001
Volume 34
Issue 6
Start page 525
End page 535
Total pages 11
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Abstract Twenty products, containing a radiolabelled form of each active in typical cosmetic formulations, were made and applied to female human epidermal membranes mounted in Franz diffusion cells for 48 h under 'in use' conditions. The products consisted of combinations of five formulations (a hydro-alcoholic gel, an oil in water emulsion, a water in oil emulsion, a microemulsion and an oil) with four model drug actives (testosterone, hydrocortisone, 5-fluorouracil and ketoconazole). Steady-state flux appeared to be reached by 8 h and maintained for all products, other than for the microemulsions, consistent with the actives being present in the residual formulation on the skin at saturation. The recovery for each active at the end of the 48-h study (from a series of stratum corneum tape strips, the remaining skin, cumulative amount penetrating into the receptor solution, product washed from the skin and on the donor chamber cap) ranged from 86.5% to 100.6%. The rank order of the fluxes for the actives from the hydro-alcoholic gel is consistent with the known active molecular size and polarity determinants for maximum epidermal flux. Actives with similar steady-state (maximum) fluxes from a range of formulations had retention in the stratum corneum and similar transport rate constants through the stratum corneum. The microemulsion formulation significantly enhanced both the stratum corneum steady-state flux and transport rate constant for 5-fluorouracil, hydrocortisone and testosterone. The penetration flux of each active could be related to its size and polarity and appeared maximal when the actives in the different cosmetic formulations applied to the skin under 'in use' conditions were likely to remain in the residual product on the skin as a saturated solution after solvent evaporation. Enhanced penetration fluxes can be achieved by formulation selection and an appropriate choice/mix of emollients/adjuvants. The principles described here provide a framework for understanding the delivery of cosmetic ingredients from various formulations.
Keyword Actives
Diffusivity
Flux
Formulation
Partition coefficient
Retention
Skin penetration
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article first published online: 11 October 2012.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
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