Cigarette smoking and age of menopause: a large prospective study

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R., Clavarino, Alexandra, Williams, Gail M., Sina, Maryam and Najman, Jake M. (2012) Cigarette smoking and age of menopause: a large prospective study. Maturitas, 72 4: 346-352. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.05.004

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Author Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R.
Clavarino, Alexandra
Williams, Gail M.
Sina, Maryam
Najman, Jake M.
Title Cigarette smoking and age of menopause: a large prospective study
Journal name Maturitas   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0378-5122
Publication date 2012-08
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.05.004
Open Access Status
Volume 72
Issue 4
Start page 346
End page 352
Total pages 7
Place of publication Shannon, Co. Clare Ireland
Publisher Elsevier Ireland
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract
One of the possible consequences of tobacco consumption is that it contributes to an earlier age of menopause, though the causal relationship is yet to be confirmed. This study aimed to examine the prospective association between smoking and earlier age of menopause in a cohort of middle age Australian women after adjustment for a number of potential confounders.

Study design

21-Year follow-up of a cohort prospective study, Brisbane, Australia.

Main outcome measures

Age of menopause measured at the 21-year follow-up. Smoking and menopausal status were assessed by self-report. Other covariates were measured prospectively in the previous follow-ups.


This study is based on 3545 women who provided data on their menopausal status at the 21-year follow-up of the study, and prospective as well as concurrent data on smoking. In univariate analysis tobacco smoking during the reproductive life course, socio-economic status and gravidity were significantly associated with earlier age of menopause. In multivariate analyses women who smoked cigarettes were more likely to experience earlier menopause than non-smokers. Compared to current smokers, risk of early menopause was significantly lower in those women who quit smoking in the past.


The data suggest that the impact of smoking is independent of other covariates associated with both smoking and age of menopause. The findings raise the possibility that effective quit smoking interventions may lead to a later age of menopause, and reduce the risk of adverse health consequences of early menopause.
Keyword Age of menopause
Risk factor
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
School of Pharmacy Publications
School of Social Science Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 16 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 22 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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