The management of smallholder duck flocks in Central Java, Indonesia, and potential hazards promoting the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus

Henning, J., Wibawa, H., Yulianto, D., Usman, T. B., Junaidi, A. and Meers, J. (2012) The management of smallholder duck flocks in Central Java, Indonesia, and potential hazards promoting the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus. Worlds Poultry Science Journal, 68 3: 513-528. doi:10.1017/S004393391200061X


Author Henning, J.
Wibawa, H.
Yulianto, D.
Usman, T. B.
Junaidi, A.
Meers, J.
Title The management of smallholder duck flocks in Central Java, Indonesia, and potential hazards promoting the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus
Journal name Worlds Poultry Science Journal   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0043-9339
1743-4777
Publication date 2012-09
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1017/S004393391200061X
Volume 68
Issue 3
Start page 513
End page 528
Total pages 16
Place of publication Cambridge, United Kingdom
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Abstract Ducks are considered to play an important role in the transmission and maintenance of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus. However, there is limited information on duck management practices in countries where HPAI is endemic. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 96 'stationary' smallholder duck farms in Indonesia to describe the management of ducks and to identify practices that could potentially promote the risk of HPAI spread. The mean flock size was 29 ducks, ranging from 1 up to 150 birds. Both the sale and the consumption of eggs were the most important purposes of duck keeping, followed by the use of droppings for fertilizer and the production of meat ducks. About 77% of duck owners allowed their ducks to scavenge. Important hazards for interspecies HPAI virus transmission related to scavenging were identified: 1) intermingling between ducks and chickens on duck farms (48%); 2) frequent contact with neighbours' chickens (44%); 3) visits to the same paddies by duck flocks from other farms (88%); 4) in the paddies, contact between duck flock and other ducks, chickens, people and wild birds as reported by 88%, 30%, 80% and 77% of duck owners respectively; 5) the keeping of singing birds by 17% of farmers; 6) predators such as the small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) (25%) and feral cats (20%) visiting the duck farms (these species are susceptible to HPAI infection and might play a role in the spread of the HPAI virus). Many duck owners associated deaths of their birds with the use of pesticides in the rice paddies, and appeared to be more concerned about pesticide toxicity, problems that inhibit scavenging ability and external parasites than about HPAI, which in general was not considered to be of high importance. Hence HPAI vaccination or preventive culling of ducks during disease outbreaks was not conducted on the study farms.
Keyword Management
Ducks
Smallholder
HPAI
Avian influenza
Indonesia
Hazard
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Published online: 31 July 2012.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Veterinary Science Publications
 
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