Juhász, Angéla, Békés, Frank and Wrigley, Colin (2015). Wheat proteins. In Zeynep Ustunol (Ed.), Applied food protein chemistry (pp. 219-303) Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9781118860588.ch11
Wheat is uniquely suited to the baking of leavened bread mainly because of its protein composition. The flour-forming endosperm contains storage proteins that form the gluten complex after grinding and mixing with water. Essential to the unique dough structure are the glutenin polypeptides that are disulfide cross-linked into polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. Their contribution to dough strength is balanced by the smaller gliadin proteins. Our knowledge of composition–function relationships permits the prediction of dough quality. The bran and germ tissues contain a further range of proteins. The important attributes of grain hardness and milling quality are explained by variations in protein composition, especially for the puroindolines. Specific amino acid sequences of wheat proteins have been shown to be responsible for wheat-related health issues, including celiac disease. Proteomic studies of the wheat proteins are bringing new insights into their composition and functional properties.