Cytochrome c: Potential as a noninvasive biomarker of drug-induced acute kidney injury

Small, David M. and Gobe, Glenda C. (2012) Cytochrome c: Potential as a noninvasive biomarker of drug-induced acute kidney injury. Expert Opinion On Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 8 6: 655-664. doi:10.1517/17425255.2012.679657


Author Small, David M.
Gobe, Glenda C.
Title Cytochrome c: Potential as a noninvasive biomarker of drug-induced acute kidney injury
Journal name Expert Opinion On Drug Metabolism & Toxicology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1742-5255
1744-7607
Publication date 2012-06
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1517/17425255.2012.679657
Volume 8
Issue 6
Start page 655
End page 664
Total pages 10
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Informa Healthcare
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients is closely associated with increased morbidity and mortality, yet there remains continued reliance on increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen to diagnose AKI. These biomarkers increase only after significant renal structural damage has occurred. Recent research efforts have focused on discovery and validation of novel serum and urine biomarkers to detect AKI prior to extensive structural damage. Cytochrome c is best known as an indicator of cell death burden in any organ or tissue. It is released during mitochondrial damage that is associated with processing of apoptosis, cell lysis during necrosis and even reversible mitochondrial and cell injury. Areas covered: This article reviews the current literature on the potential for cytochrome c as an early biomarker of AKI. The article is based on PubMed searches, using the terms 'acute kidney injury,' 'renal failure,' 'biomarker,' 'toxicity' and 'cytochrome c', with a focus on experimental and clinical data. Expert opinion: Cytochrome c, as a biomarker, has the potential to improve outcome for AKI patients. Its release indicates mitochondrial damage, one of the earliest changes in cell injury and death. New mitochondrial-targeted therapeutics may be designed around this molecule. Its disadvantages include only transient increase at expression levels that are easily measurable and nonspecificity for kidney injury. The appropriate and optimal utilization of cytochrome c as a biomarker for AKI will be realized only after its complete characterization in experimental and clinical arenas.
Keyword Acute kidney injury
Acute renal failure
Apoptosis
Biomarker
Cytochrome c
Mitochondria
Necrosis
Nephrotoxicity
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Publications
School of Medicine Publications
 
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