Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug users

Kinner, Stuart A., Milloy, M. -J., Wood, Evan, Qi, Jiezhi, Zhang, Ruth and Kerr, Thomas (2012) Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug users. Addictive Behaviors, 37 6: 691-696.


Author Kinner, Stuart A.
Milloy, M. -J.
Wood, Evan
Qi, Jiezhi
Zhang, Ruth
Kerr, Thomas
Title Incidence and risk factors for non-fatal overdose among a cohort of recently incarcerated illicit drug users
Journal name Addictive Behaviors   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0306-4603
1873-6327
Publication date 2012-06
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.01.019
Volume 37
Issue 6
Start page 691
End page 696
Total pages 6
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Pergamon
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract Background
Release from prison is associated with a markedly increased risk of both fatal and non-fatal drug overdose, yet the risk factors for overdose in recently released prisoners are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk and protective factors for non-fatal overdose (NFOD) among a cohort of illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, according to recent incarceration.

Methods

Prospective cohort of 2515 community-recruited illicit drug users in Vancouver, Canada, followed from 1996 to 2010. We examined factors associated with NFOD in the past six months separately among those who did and did not also report incarceration in the last six months.

Results
One third of participants (n = 829, 33.0%) reported at least one recent NFOD. Among those recently incarcerated, risk factors independently and positively associated with NFOD included daily use of heroin, benzodiazepines, cocaine or methamphetamine, binge drug use, public injecting and previous NFOD. Older age, methadone maintenance treatment and HIV seropositivity were protective against NFOD. A similar set of risk factors was identified among those who had not been incarcerated recently.

Conclusions

Among this cohort, and irrespective of recent incarceration, NFOD was associated with a range of modifiable risk factors including more frequent and riskier patterns of drug use. Not all ex-prisoners are at equal risk of overdose and there remains an urgent need to develop and implement evidence-based preventive interventions, targeting those with modifiable risk factors in this high risk group.
Keyword Overdose
Ex-prisoners
Drug users
Safer injection facility
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Population Health Publications
School of Medicine Publications
 
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