Prevalence of mimosine and DHP toxicity in cattle grazing leucaena leucocephala pastures in Queensland, Australia

Dalzell, S. A., Burnett, D. J., Dowsett, J. E., Forbes, V. E. and Shelton, H. M. (2012) Prevalence of mimosine and DHP toxicity in cattle grazing leucaena leucocephala pastures in Queensland, Australia. Animal Production Science, 52 5: 365-372. doi:10.1071/AN11236

Author Dalzell, S. A.
Burnett, D. J.
Dowsett, J. E.
Forbes, V. E.
Shelton, H. M.
Title Prevalence of mimosine and DHP toxicity in cattle grazing leucaena leucocephala pastures in Queensland, Australia
Journal name Animal Production Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1836-0939
Publication date 2012
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1071/AN11236
Volume 52
Issue 5
Start page 365
End page 372
Total pages 8
Place of publication Collingwood, VIC, Australia
Publisher CSIRO Publishing
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Abstract A postal survey of the level of awareness of leucaena toxicity and an on-farm study of the toxicity status of Queensland cattle herds grazing leucaena were conducted to investigate the prevalence of mimosine and dihydroxypyridine (DHP) toxicity in Queensland. In total, 195 of 356 graziers surveyed responded to the postal survey. Sixty-three percent had inoculated their cattle with in vitro Synergistes jonesii inoculum (produced in an anaerobic fermenter) and 30% of these had inoculated more than once. The remainder used inappropriate procedures. Many graziers (43%) had occasionally observed toxicity symptoms of hair loss and poor animal growth rates. In the on-farm study, the toxicity status of 385 animals in 44 individually managed herds on 36 properties was determined by urine analysis of mimosine and DHP concentrations. No animals were experiencing mimosine toxicity, based on low concentrations of this compound found in the urine. Using the criterion that average herd urine concentrations of DHP>100 μg/mL was indicative of subclinical toxicity, 48% of herds were exposed to subclinical toxicity due to dominant 3,4-DHP (21%) or dominant 2,3-DHP (27%) toxicity; many of these herds had been inoculated with S. jonesii and were thought to be protected. The finding that 27% of herds were excreting high concentrations of 2,3-DHP was unexpected. Statistical analysis of herd-management data revealed that the method used by graziers to inoculate their herds was significantly (P<0.05) but weakly linked to herd protection status. It was concluded that subclinical 3,4-DHP and 2,3-DHP toxicity remains a problem in Queensland and is likely to be limiting animal production in a significant number of cattle grazing leucaena-grass pastures.
Keyword 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridine (3,4-DHP)
2-hydroxy-3(1H)-pyridine (2,3-DHP)
Bacterium synergistes-jonesii
Rumen bacterium
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Published online: 10 May 2012.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
Official 2013 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 5 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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