Anxiety, depression, and comorbid anxiety and depression: risk factors and outcome over two years

Almeida, Osvaldo P., Draper, Brian, Pirkis, Jane, Snowdon, John, Lautenschlager, Nicola T., Byrne, Gerard, Sim, Moira, Stocks, Nigel, Kerse, Ngaire, Flicker, Leon and Pfaff, Jon J. (2012) Anxiety, depression, and comorbid anxiety and depression: risk factors and outcome over two years. International Psychogeriatrics, 24 10: 1622-1632. doi:10.1017/S104161021200107X

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Author Almeida, Osvaldo P.
Draper, Brian
Pirkis, Jane
Snowdon, John
Lautenschlager, Nicola T.
Byrne, Gerard
Sim, Moira
Stocks, Nigel
Kerse, Ngaire
Flicker, Leon
Pfaff, Jon J.
Title Anxiety, depression, and comorbid anxiety and depression: risk factors and outcome over two years
Journal name International Psychogeriatrics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1041-6102
Publication date 2012-10
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1017/S104161021200107X
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 24
Issue 10
Start page 1622
End page 1632
Total pages 11
Place of publication Cambridge, United Kingdom
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: This study aimed to determine: (1) the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and depression associated with anxiety (DA); (2) the risk factor profile of depression, anxiety, and DA; (3) the course of depression, anxiety, and DA over 24 months.
Methods: Two-year longitudinal study of 20,036 adults aged 60+ years. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale to establish the presence of depression and anxiety, and standard procedures to collect demographic, lifestyle, psychosocial, and clinical data.
Results: The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and DA was 4.7%, 1.4%, and 1.8%. About 57% of depression cases showed evidence of comorbid anxiety, while only 28% of those with clinically significant anxiety had concurrent depression. There was not only an overlap in the distribution of risk factors in these diagnostic groups but also differences. We found that 31%, 23%, and 35% of older adults with anxiety, depression, and DA showed persistence of symptoms after two years. Repeated anxiety was more common in women and repeated depression in men. Socioeconomic stressors were common in repeated DA.
Conclusions: Clinically significant anxiety and depression are distinct conditions that frequently coexist in later life; when they appear together, older adults endure a more chronic course of illness.
Keyword Mood disorder
Anxiety disorder
Mixed state
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2013 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 15 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Thu, 14 Jun 2012, 15:21:52 EST by Sheila Cleary on behalf of Psychiatry - Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital