Habitat structure is frequently an important variable affecting species’ abundances and diversity, and identifying the key aspects and spatial scales of habitat complexity is critical for understanding the ecology and conservation of a range of communities. Many coral-reef fishes are intimately linked with benthic habitat structure, and previous research has demonstrated rugosity as an important predictive variable of assemblage parameters. However, these studies typically consider rugosity at small scales, amalgamate multiple habitat features, or are semi-quantitative. This study considers meso-scale rugosity (within 51 plots of 25 m2 on a Belizean forereef) generated by varying coral densities, heights, and complexities. Seven rugosity metrics were calculated for each plot, and were regressed against each of 11 fish assemblage parameters. Intra-habitat variability of each fish parameter was significantly positively or curvilinearly correlated to at least one metric of meso-scale rugosity, but the metric generating the strongest correlation varied. The abundance of small fishes, and consequently most of the assemblage statistics (e.g., total fish abundance and diversity) were best predicted by the number of tall (>50 cm) corals. The abundance of damselfishes, parrotfish biomass, the abundances of medium-sized and large fishes, and total fish biomass were curvilinearly related to mean coral height. The abundances of wrasses and surgeonfishes were most strongly correlated with the number of corals within a plot. Because coral-generated meso-scale rugosity is an important factor influencing intra-habitat variation in fishes, it should be explicitly considered when investigating fish-habitat relationships and predicting the impacts of coral mortality on ecosystem processes and services.