Use of inorganic and organic wastes for in situ immobilisation of Pb and Zn in a contaminated alkaline soil

Zhou, Y. -F., Haynes, R. J. and Naidu, R. (2012) Use of inorganic and organic wastes for in situ immobilisation of Pb and Zn in a contaminated alkaline soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19 4: 1260-1270. doi:10.1007/s11356-011-0648-4

Author Zhou, Y. -F.
Haynes, R. J.
Naidu, R.
Title Use of inorganic and organic wastes for in situ immobilisation of Pb and Zn in a contaminated alkaline soil
Journal name Environmental Science and Pollution Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0944-1344
Publication date 2012-05
Year available 2011
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11356-011-0648-4
Volume 19
Issue 4
Start page 1260
End page 1270
Total pages 11
Editor Alícia Navarro Ortega
Sergi Sabater
Damià Barceló
Place of publication Heidelberg, Germany
Publisher Springer
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Purpose This study aims to examine whether addition of immobilising agents to a sandy, alkaline (pH = 8.1) soil, which had been contaminated with Pb and Zn by airborne particles from a Pb/Zn smelter, would substantially reduce metal bioavailability.
Methods The effectiveness of five waste materials (blast furnace (BF) slag, alum water treatment (WT) sludge, red mud, sugar mill mud and green waste compost) as metal immobilising agents was evaluated by incubating them with a contaminated soil for a period of 12 months at rates of 5% and 10% (w/w), after which, Rhodes grass was grown in the soils in a greenhouse study.
Results Additions of WT sludge, BF slag and red mud reduced CaCl2, CH3COOH, HCl and EDTA-extractable Zn but compost and mill mud had no appreciable immobilising effects. Additions of all amendments reduced levels of CaCl2, CH3COOH and HCl-extractable Pb although concentrations of EDTA-extractable Pb remained unchanged. A sequential extraction procedure showed that additions of mill mud and compost increased the percentage of total Pb and Zn present in the oxidisable fraction whilst additions of the other materials increased the percentage present in the residual fraction. Rhodes grass yields were promoted greatly by additions of red mud, compost and particularly mill mud, and yields were negatively correlated with tissue Pb concentrations and extractable Pb.
Conclusions Red mud was the most effective material for lowering extractable Pb and Zn levels simultaneously while mill mud and compost were notably effective for Pb. A field evaluation in the study area is justified.
Keyword Metal immobilisation
Metal fixation
Heavy metals
Extractable metals
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Published online: 12 November 2011. Special Issue: Understanding effects of global change on water quantity and quality in river basins.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
Official 2013 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 12 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 12 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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