The establishment of a non-conventional waste management scheme in Jakarta, Indonesia by an environmentally-aware resident was developed to serve as a solution to the lack of green plants in the surrounding area, and the dirtiness the area due to unavailability of a government waste service. Indeed, it achieved more than that. Its combination of providing a waste service and waste minimisation by means of composting and recycling has illustrated the potential for community-based solid waste management in Indonesia. It is this potential that led to the decision to analyse this type of scheme in this dissertation. It is not only Indonesia that could benefit from the scheme but all other developing countries with similar problems. If this nonconventional approach to waste management is successful it could play a very important role into the foreseeable future.
At present, there are countless suburbs in Jakarta and other cities that are yet to receive proper government waste services. This is due to inaccessible roads for trucks, and the monthly waste fee being unaffordable. The consequences are serious. The implementation of the non-conventional scheme will not require the restructuring the roads, which would be an enormous cost and not affordable given all the other demands on the government in Indonesia. The monthly waste services fee can be kept to a minimum under the non-conventional scheme.
The original primary goal of the non-conventional scheme was to improve environmental awareness in the local community, as well as to provide waste services to the community. A focus of this study, however, is to examine whether or not community-based schemes can direct a significant proportion of the solid waste stream to reduce a proportion of waste that goes to landfill. Hence, the environmental awareness goal is not a direct research focus.
A triangulation technique based on the combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis and field observation was adopted to answer questions throughout this research, as well as testing the general hypothesis which is that this non-conventional scheme is not an aberration confined to one particular set circumstances in a particular Jakarta suburbs, but rather capable of being adopted widely.
Data were gathered from the range of key groups of stakeholders, which include households, waste collectors, community leaders and Indonesian living abroad to provide the empirical data to test the general hypothesis and a number of sub-hypotheses, with various questionnaires and interviews being the instruments used to gather data for this study. Three independent Indonesian suburbs ("RWs") were compared across socio-economic-environmental indicators using the SPSS statistical package. Within these three locations, householders were selected using stratified random sampling.
Another aspect of this research is a focus on the role of scavengers. The role they play in cities like Jakarta is not necessarily required. Public and private attitude toward them are not generally positive. Yet, without their dirty and, for some, unhealthy work, the waste problem would be much worse and vast amount of recyclable material would be lost to production. How these people can be better integrated into the waste management system, and how their situation can be improved by working in the non-conventional scheme is another focus of the research.
Another aspect of the research was to put waste management in Indonesia to-day in an historical/development perspective. If one studies the waste management schemes in South-east Asia and Oceania, there is an obvious relationship between the per capita wealth of countries (which correlated to a stage of development) and the type of waste system in place. For example, Singapore is one of the cleanest cities in the world; Kuala Lumpur has waste services based on mobile bins as in Australia; Brisbane has developed from having a large number of open rubbish dumps spread throughout the suburbs where a generation ago scavenging was poorly controlled - 40 years ago it was common- to one of the highest recycling levels in the world. Indonesia, the Philippine and other South-east Asian countries need to find a means of moving toward the waste services of these countries. They can not do this directly. This historical context is explored in the dissertation.
The findings of this research indicated that there is a need for each resident to participate in managing waste. Put in other word, waste management just does not happen. In the developed countries, just mentioned, individuals are required to make a number of decisions in the household, for example to separate wastes, to compost, etc., and so, it needs to be in Indonesia, even though the waste management scheme is different.
Because this study has proved that it is possible to use a non-conventional approach to achieve good results in waste management, recommendations that community leaders should initiate the establishment of non-conventional schemes, and that residents should actively participate have been included, in a hope that they will serve as the most effective solution to the waste problems Indonesia is facing. That this has been proven to be the case is very important for Indonesia and similarly placed countries as they cannot afford to move from their present waste management system to a costly one ( as in Brisbane or Singapore).
However, in moving from short term solutions to the long term, there are in fact a number of things one can learn from the waste system in Brisbane. They include the waste separation system, clear law and rules, a well-managed waste system and education of the public. These can be used as a future perspective for a better waste system in Indonesia.