High pressure freezing/freeze substitution and TEM for the characterisation of metal oxide nanoparticles within sunscreens

Butler, Margaret K., Prow, Tarl W., Guo, Ya-Nan, Lin, Lynlee L., Webb, Richard I. and Martin, Darren J. (2012) High pressure freezing/freeze substitution and TEM for the characterisation of metal oxide nanoparticles within sunscreens. Nanomedicine, 7 4: 541-551.


Author Butler, Margaret K.
Prow, Tarl W.
Guo, Ya-Nan
Lin, Lynlee L.
Webb, Richard I.
Martin, Darren J.
Title High pressure freezing/freeze substitution and TEM for the characterisation of metal oxide nanoparticles within sunscreens
Journal name Nanomedicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1743-5889
Publication date 2012-04
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.2217/NNM.11.149
Volume 7
Issue 4
Start page 541
End page 551
Total pages 11
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Future Medicine
Collection year 2013
Language eng
Formatted abstract Aims: To date, the description of a single, suitable method to observe in detail metal oxide nanoparticles in situ within sunscreens is currently lacking, despite growing concern as to how they interact with humans. This study explores the usefulness of transmission electron microscopy to characterize the nanoparticles in sunscreens.

Materials & methods: High-pressure freezing then freeze substitution was used to prepare resin-embedded commercial sunscreen samples, and ultrathin sections of these were observed with transmission electron microscopy. Conventional room temperature processing for resin embedding was also trialed.

Results:
High-pressure frozen/freeze substituted samples provided clear visualization of the size and shape of the nanoparticles and agglomerates and allowed further characterization of the composition and crystal form of the metal oxides, while conventionally processed chemically fixed samples were subject to distribution/agglomeration artifacts.

Conclusion: Transmission electron microscopy of high-pressure frozen/freeze substituted samples is an ideal method to completely observe metal oxide nanoparticles in situ in sunscreens.
Keyword In situ characterization
Metal oxide nanoparticles
Particle characterization
Sunscreen
Transmission electron microscopy
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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Created: Mon, 23 Apr 2012, 10:37:41 EST by Miss Susan Theiss on behalf of School of Biological Sciences