Genetic polymorphisms and periodontitis

Chai, L., Corbet, E. F. and Leung, W. K. (2010). Genetic polymorphisms and periodontitis. In Rosemarie E. Walchuck (Ed.), Periodontitis symptoms, treatment and prevention (pp. 209-219) Hauppage, N.Y. U.S.A.: Nova Science Publishers.

Author Chai, L.
Corbet, E. F.
Leung, W. K.
Title of chapter Genetic polymorphisms and periodontitis
Language of Chapter Title eng
Title of book Periodontitis symptoms, treatment and prevention
Language of Book Title eng
Place of Publication Hauppage, N.Y. U.S.A.
Publisher Nova Science Publishers
Publication Year 2010
Sub-type Chapter in textbook
Series Public Health in the 21st Century series
ISBN 9781616688363
161668836X
Editor Rosemarie E. Walchuck
Chapter number 9
Start page 209
End page 219
Total pages 11
Total chapters 12
Language eng
Abstract/Summary Periodontitis is a complex disease which is associated with multiple factors, including host immune responses, and genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. It is generally accepted that genetic polymorphisms can modulate host immune responses to bacterial challenge, hence influencing subjects‟ susceptibility to periodontitis. Genetic association with periodontal disease experience has been a subject of interest for more than a decade. With the completion of Human Genome Project, genetic association studies emerged in many fields of research including research into periodontitis, one of the most common human diseases. This chapter summarizes past and current research approaches with respect to periodontal disease experience and genetic polymorphisms, and suggests anticipated directions of future studies. Back in the 1970s, researchers had already realized that inheritance could possibly be involved in pathogenesis of what was then termed early onset or juvenile periodontitis. Evidence came from studies on families, from studying syndrome-associated juvenile periodontitis and also from research involving animal models. Some researchers considered juvenile periodontitis as possibly an X-linked disease with a decreased penetration dominant trait but a relatively consistent gene expressivity (Melnick et al., 1976; Marazita et al., 1994), whereas others suggested it was an autosomal recessive disease (Saxen, 1980; Saxen and Nevanlinna, 1984; Long et al., 1987). Although the inheritance pattern was unclear at that stage, the concept of heredity as one of the etiologic factors in this form of periodontitis was recognized. A common consensus was reached that genetic factors play a role in determining early onset periodontal disease susceptibility by modulating host immune responses rather than by causing the disease directly. Along with juvenile periodontitis, studies on twins also provided solid evidence of genetic predisposition on pathogenesis of adult chronic periodontitis. Michalowicz and colleagues reported clinical, radiographic, and bacteriologic findings in reared-together and reared-apart adult twins, including 21 pairs of reared-apart monozygous twins, 17 pairs of reared-apart dizygous twins, 83 pairs of reared-together monozygous twins and 43 pairs of reared-together dizygous twins. They concluded that about 50% of population variance in both severity and distribution of chronic periodontitis was influenced by genetic factors (Michalowicz et al., 1991). Another large study of twins confirmed these earlier findings and extended these by reporting that the concordance rates for chronic periodontitis were higher for monozygous twins (0.38) than dizygous twins (0.16), noting in addition, that the mean difference in age at diagnosis for concordant pairs was less for monozygous twins (0.94 years) than for dizygous twins (5.38 years) (Corey et al., 1993). Thus genetic predisposition and risk for periodontitis was confirmed, however any particular gene or genotype association with periodontitis remained unclear due to limited genotyping technology available at that time.
Q-Index Code BX
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Book Chapter
Collection: School of Dentistry Publications
 
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Created: Wed, 07 Mar 2012, 14:10:28 EST by Dr Lei Chai on behalf of School of Dentistry