The Effect of Chronic Stress on Cellular Immunity: A Possible Alleviation by Praescent™

Neville Hartley (2011). The Effect of Chronic Stress on Cellular Immunity: A Possible Alleviation by Praescent™ MPhil Thesis, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland.

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Author Neville Hartley
Thesis Title The Effect of Chronic Stress on Cellular Immunity: A Possible Alleviation by Praescent™
School, Centre or Institute School of Biomedical Sciences
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2011-03
Thesis type MPhil Thesis
Supervisor Dr Nickolas Lavidis
Dr Adrian Bradley
Total pages 122
Total colour pages 50 + 3 grey
Total black and white pages 69
Language eng
Subjects 11 Medical and Health Sciences
Abstract/Summary It is well known that chronic stress affects the immune system which is often suppressed during chronic stress affecting both cellular and humoral components of immunity. During chronic stress excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also produced which contribute to cellular damage, inflammation, cancer, and immune dysfunction. This project investigates whether Praescent™, a mixture of plant derived chemicals; cis-3-hexen-1-ol (0.03%), trans-2-hexenal (0.03%) and alpha-pinene (0.015%), can alleviate the negative effects of chronic stress on cellular immunity. In addition it explores whether there is a correlation between high levels of ROS and immune suppression. To answer these questions C57BL/6 mice were restrained for 35 consecutive days (4 h/day), injected with an antigen (ovalbumin) and exposed aromatically to Praescent™. Stress hormones were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) measuring the total and free compartments of corticosterone within the blood plasma, and adrenals were weighed as a percentage of body weight to determine the physiological effects of chronic stress. The immunological response was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay’s (ELISAs) to quantify immunoglobulin-gamma (IgG) antibodies, and their subtypes IgG1 and IgG2a, and the ratio of IgG1 to IgG2a was also evaluated. Leukocyte numbers were determined by microscopy. The oxidative status was evaluated using 2′,7′-dichloro- fluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), a sensor of ROS. During chronic stress high levels of ROS were detected accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the number of leukocytes. In addition, there was a shift from cell-mediated immunity toward antibody-mediated immunity as evident by an increase in the IgG1 to IgG2a ratio. Praescent™ significantly reduced ROS levels and prevented the reduction of leukocytes following chronic stress; however it did not prevent the stress-induced shift toward an antibody-mediated immunity. Furthermore, Praescent™ prevented the stress-induced increase in adrenal weights. These results suggest that Praescent™ is an effective agent alleviating oxidative stress and preventing stress-induced alterations to the immune system.
Keyword Chronic stress, restraint stress, ROS, leukocytes, IgG
Additional Notes Colour: 25, 37-48, 50-53, 55-62, 64-76, 78-89 Grey: 28, 29, and 35

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Created: Mon, 27 Feb 2012, 20:01:09 EST by Mr Neville Hartley on behalf of Library - Information Access Service