Stages of embryonic development in the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

Hall, Thomas E., Smith, Peter and Johnston, Ian A. (2004) Stages of embryonic development in the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Journal of Morphology, 259 3: 255-270. doi:10.1002/jmor.10222

Author Hall, Thomas E.
Smith, Peter
Johnston, Ian A.
Title Stages of embryonic development in the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua
Formatted title
Stages of embryonic development in the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua
Journal name Journal of Morphology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0362-2525
Publication date 2004-03
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1002/jmor.10222
Volume 259
Issue 3
Start page 255
End page 270
Total pages 16
Place of publication Hoboken, NJ, United States
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The early development of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua was studied from fertilization until first-feeding. Multiple families were reared at 7°C and a developmental staging series was prepared using morphological landmarks visible with the light microscope. Stages were named rather than numbered to allow for future additions and broadly grouped into larger time intervals called periods. The most useful staging features were found to be initially cell number, and later in development, somite number. The mean cell cycle time for the first six cleavages was 135 min and the linear regression equation for development of somites(s) over time (t) was s = 0.29t – 18.14. The segmentation period began at 220 h postfertilization (hpf), and unlike some other teleosts, the addition of new somites continued throughout the majority of embryonic development, until just prior to hatching. Hatching occurred at 256 hpf, after which individuals remained motionless at the water's surface, undergoing negative phototaxis only after the first day posthatch. The first-feeding stage was reached at the end of the third day posthatch, subsequent to development of a functional jaw and hindgut. This staging series provides an essential baseline reference for future experiments involving developing cod embryos and for the aquaculture industry.
Keyword Gadus morhua
embryonic development
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
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Created: Tue, 07 Feb 2012, 10:46:17 EST by Susan Allen on behalf of Institute for Molecular Bioscience