DNA sequencing allows the decoding of the genetic code, facilitating the discovery of the molecular genetic basis of biological systems. Knowledge of the sequence of genes in cereals provides a key to understanding many of their nutritional and functional properties. For many years DNA sequencing technology advanced slowly with incremental advances in the di-deoxy or Sanger method. New technologies are now greatly increasing the power of DNA sequencing. Second (next) generation sequencing has dramatically reduced the cost of DNA sequencing and increased the amount of data that can be collected. Further advances exploiting third generation sequencing promise to accelerate these developments. The DNA sequences of cereal species, genotypes or even individual seeds can now be obtained delivering a new level of capability in cereal science.