Infection risk for riparian users of water from a catchment drain receiving treated wastewater and polluted urban discharges

Griesel, M., Jagals, P. and Grabow, W. O. K. (2000). Infection risk for riparian users of water from a catchment drain receiving treated wastewater and polluted urban discharges. In: WISA 2000 Biennial Conference & Exhibition. Proceedings. WISA 2000: 7th Biennial Water Institute of Southern Africa Conference and Exhibition, Sun City, SA, (1-9). 28 May-1 June 2000.

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Author Griesel, M.
Jagals, P.
Grabow, W. O. K.
Title of paper Infection risk for riparian users of water from a catchment drain receiving treated wastewater and polluted urban discharges
Conference name WISA 2000: 7th Biennial Water Institute of Southern Africa Conference and Exhibition
Conference location Sun City, SA
Conference dates 28 May-1 June 2000
Proceedings title WISA 2000 Biennial Conference & Exhibition. Proceedings
Place of Publication Stellenbosch, Cape Town, SA
Publisher Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA)
Publication Year 2000
Sub-type Fully published paper
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Start page 1
End page 9
Total pages 9
Language eng
Formatted Abstract/Summary
A large proportion of the rural population in the developing world uses water from natural sources directly for domestic as well as other non-domestic purposes such as agriculture and recreation. Human and animal excreta as well as domestic sewage inevitably carry a variety of human pathogens into surface and groundwater. These microbiological agents include pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa that can cause gastro-intestinal diseases. Communities use a variety of waters for potable as well as non-potable purposes such as agriculture and recreation. Systems for water decontamination and clarification / disinfection for such a variety of human requirements are heavily relied upon to safeguard user-populations against contaminated water. In South Africa, urban authorities are compelled to promote sanitation and protect water resources by installing a variety of wastewater treatment facilities in urban areas to reduce the contaminant overload associated with untreated wastewater. Barriers such as chlorination are usually included in the design to remove pathogenic microorganisms. However, urban settlements at various levels of development are continually reported to contribute to pollution of aquatic environments. This is generally due to various factors such as treatment facilities either under-designed or improperly managed, faecally polluted surface run-off from underdeveloped areas with inadequate sanitation as well as poorly maintained sewage collection systems in developed areas. Results indicated that the treatment facilities intermittently released mean levels of microbiological indicator organisms that exceeded infection risk limits proposed by various water quality guidelines. Other diffuse urban discharges generally released similar levels of these indicators into receiving waters but higher levels during and directly after rainfall events. The results further indicated that faecally polluted urban run-off, in combination with the discharged treated effluents, overcame the assimilation capacity of the receiving waters, therefore creating a risk of infection to exposed riparian users for considerable distances downstream from the urban development.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Conference Paper
Collection: School of Public Health Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 24 Jan 2012, 13:42:42 EST by Geraldine Fitzgerald on behalf of School of Public Health