Does improved access to water supply by rural households enhance the concept of safe-water at the point of use? A case study from deep rural South Africa

Jagals, P. (2006) Does improved access to water supply by rural households enhance the concept of safe-water at the point of use? A case study from deep rural South Africa. Water Science and Technology, 54 3: 9-16. doi:10.2166/wst.2006.441


Author Jagals, P.
Title Does improved access to water supply by rural households enhance the concept of safe-water at the point of use? A case study from deep rural South Africa
Journal name Water Science and Technology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0273-1223
1996-9732
Publication date 2006
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.2166/wst.2006.441
Volume 54
Issue 3
Start page 9
End page 16
Total pages 8
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher IWA Publishing
Language eng
Abstract The concept of safe water is defined by three principles: the health-related quality must be suitable, the supply/source must be accessible and the water must constantly be available in quantities sufficient for the intended use. If any one (or more) of these three elements is missing from a water services improvement programme, providing safe water is not successfully achieved. A study in a deep rural area in South Africa showed that providing small communities, using untreated river water as their only water source, with good quality water through a piped distribution system and accessible at communal taps did not fall within our parameters of safe water. The parameters for measuring the three principles were: absence of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples; accessibility by improving tap distances to within 200 m from each household; availability by assessing whether households have at least 25 L per person per day. Results show that although E. coli levels were reduced significantly, households were still consuming water with E. coli numbers at non-compliant levels. Access (distance) was improved from an average of 750 m from households to river source to an average of 120 m to new on-tap source points. This did not result in significant increases in household quantities, which on average remained around 18 L per person per day.
Keyword Access
Availability
Communal taps
Drinking water supply
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: ERA 2012 Admin Only
School of Public Health Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 24 Jan 2012, 12:05:35 EST by Geraldine Fitzgerald on behalf of School of Public Health