Altered developmental timing in early life stages of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) exposed to p,p '-DDE

Poulsen, Anita H., Kawaguchi, So, Leppanen, Matti T., Kukkonen, Jussi V. K. and Bengtson Nash, Susan M. (2011) Altered developmental timing in early life stages of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) exposed to p,p '-DDE. Science of the Total Environment, 409 24: 5268-5276. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.08.056

Author Poulsen, Anita H.
Kawaguchi, So
Leppanen, Matti T.
Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.
Bengtson Nash, Susan M.
Title Altered developmental timing in early life stages of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) exposed to p,p '-DDE
Formatted title
Altered developmental timing in early life stages of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) exposed to p,p '-DDE
Journal name Science of the Total Environment   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0048-9697
Publication date 2011-11-15
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.08.056
Volume 409
Issue 24
Start page 5268
End page 5276
Total pages 9
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative anthropogenic organic chemicals, capable of undergoing long range environmental transport to remote areas including the Antarctic. p,p′-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) has been identified as a dominant POP accumulating in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), which is a key Southern Ocean species. This study examined the developmental toxicity of p,p′-DDE via aqueous exposure to Antarctic krill larvae. p,p′-DDE exposure was found to stimulate developmental timing in the first three larval stages of Antarctic krill, while extended monitoring of larvae after a five day exposure period had ended, revealed delayed inhibitory responses during development to the fourth larval stage. Stimulatory responses were observed from the lowest p,p′-DDE body residue tested of 10.1 ± 3.0 μmol/kg (3.2 ± 0.95 mg/kg) preserved wet weight, which is comparable to findings for temperate species and an order of magnitude lower than the exposure level found to cause sublethal behavioural effects in Antarctic krill. The delayed responses included increased mortality, which had doubled in the highest p,p′-DDE treatment (95 ± 8.9% mortality at 20 μg/L p,p′-DDE) compared to the solvent control (44 ± 11% mortality) 2 weeks after end of exposure. Development of surviving metanauplius larvae to calyptopis 1 larvae was delayed by 2 days in p,p′-DDE exposed larvae compared with untreated larvae. Finally, the developmental success of surviving p,p′-DDE exposed larvae was reduced by 50 to 75% compared to the solvent control (100% developmental success). The lowest observed effect concentration for all delayed effects was 1 μg/L, the lowest exposure concentration tested. These findings demonstrate the importance of delayed and indirect effects of toxicant exposure. Further, the findings of this study are important for environmental risk assessment of POPs in the Southern Ocean ecosystem and strongly highlight the significance of developmental endpoints for ecotoxicological testing.
Keyword Persistent organic pollutant (POP)
Antarctic krill
Early life stage (ELS) testing
Tissue residue approach (TRA)
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2012 Collection
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
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