Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development

Renfree, Marilyn B., Papenfuss, Anthony T., Deakin, Janine E., Lindsay, James, Heider, Thomas, Belov, Katherine, Rens, Willem, Waters, Paul D., Pharo, Elizabeth A., Shaw, Geoff, Wong, Emily S. W., Lefevre, Christopher M., Nicholas, Kevin R., Kuroki, Yoko, Wakefield, Matthew J., Zenger, Kyall R., Wang, Chenwei, Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm, Nicholas, Frank W., Hickford, Danielle, Yu, Hongshi, Short, Kirsty R., Siddle, Hannah V., Frankenberg, Stephen R., Chew, Keng Yih, Menzies, Brandon R., Stringer, Jessica M., Suzuki, Shunsuke, Hore, Timothy A., Delbridge, Margaret L., Mohammadi, Amir, Schneider, Nanette Y., Hu, Yanqiu, O'Hara, William, Al Nadaf, Shafagh, Wu, Chen, Feng, Zhi-Ping, Cocks, Benjamin G., Wang, Jianghui, Flicek, Paul, Searle, Stephen M. J., Fairley, Susan, Beal, Kathryn, Herrero, Javier, Carone, Dawn M., Suzuki, Yutaka, Sugano, Sumio, Toyoda, Atsushi, Sakaki, Yoshiyuki, Kondo, Shinji, Nishida, Yuichiro, Tatsumoto, Shoji, Mandiou, Ion, Hsu, Arthur, McColl, Kaighin A., Lansdell, Benjamin, Weinstock, George, Kuczek, Elizabeth, McGrath, Annette, Wilson, Peter, Men, Artem, Hazar-Rethinam, Mehlika, Hall, Allison, Davis, John, Wood, David, Williams, Sarah, Sundaravadanam, Yogi, Muzny, Donna M., Jhangiani, Shalini N., Lewis, Lora R., Morgan, Margaret B., Okwuonu, Geoffrey O., Ruiz, San Juana, Santibanez, Jireh, Nazareth, Lynne, Cree, Andrew, Fowler, Gerald, Kovar, Christie L., Dinh, Huyen H., Joshi, Vandita, Jing, Chyn, Lara, Fremiet, Thornton, Rebecca, Chen, Lei, Deng, Jixin, Liu, Yue, Shen, Joshua Y., Song, Xing-Zhi, Edson, Janette, Troon, Carmen, Thomas, Daniel, Stephens, Amber, Yapa, Lankesha, Levchenko, Tanya, Gibbs, Richard A., Cooper, Desmond W., Speed, Terence P., Fujiyama, Asao, Graves, Jennifer A. M., O'Neill, Rachel J., Pask, Andrew J., Forrest, Susan M. and Worley, Kim C. (2011) Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development. Genome Biology, 12 8: R81.1-R81.25. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-8-r81

Author Renfree, Marilyn B.
Papenfuss, Anthony T.
Deakin, Janine E.
Lindsay, James
Heider, Thomas
Belov, Katherine
Rens, Willem
Waters, Paul D.
Pharo, Elizabeth A.
Shaw, Geoff
Wong, Emily S. W.
Lefevre, Christopher M.
Nicholas, Kevin R.
Kuroki, Yoko
Wakefield, Matthew J.
Zenger, Kyall R.
Wang, Chenwei
Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm
Nicholas, Frank W.
Hickford, Danielle
Yu, Hongshi
Short, Kirsty R.
Siddle, Hannah V.
Frankenberg, Stephen R.
Chew, Keng Yih
Menzies, Brandon R.
Stringer, Jessica M.
Suzuki, Shunsuke
Hore, Timothy A.
Delbridge, Margaret L.
Mohammadi, Amir
Schneider, Nanette Y.
Hu, Yanqiu
O'Hara, William
Al Nadaf, Shafagh
Wu, Chen
Feng, Zhi-Ping
Cocks, Benjamin G.
Wang, Jianghui
Flicek, Paul
Searle, Stephen M. J.
Fairley, Susan
Beal, Kathryn
Herrero, Javier
Carone, Dawn M.
Suzuki, Yutaka
Sugano, Sumio
Toyoda, Atsushi
Sakaki, Yoshiyuki
Kondo, Shinji
Nishida, Yuichiro
Tatsumoto, Shoji
Mandiou, Ion
Hsu, Arthur
McColl, Kaighin A.
Lansdell, Benjamin
Weinstock, George
Kuczek, Elizabeth
McGrath, Annette
Wilson, Peter
Men, Artem
Hazar-Rethinam, Mehlika
Hall, Allison
Davis, John
Wood, David
Williams, Sarah
Sundaravadanam, Yogi
Muzny, Donna M.
Jhangiani, Shalini N.
Lewis, Lora R.
Morgan, Margaret B.
Okwuonu, Geoffrey O.
Ruiz, San Juana
Santibanez, Jireh
Nazareth, Lynne
Cree, Andrew
Fowler, Gerald
Kovar, Christie L.
Dinh, Huyen H.
Joshi, Vandita
Jing, Chyn
Lara, Fremiet
Thornton, Rebecca
Chen, Lei
Deng, Jixin
Liu, Yue
Shen, Joshua Y.
Song, Xing-Zhi
Edson, Janette
Troon, Carmen
Thomas, Daniel
Stephens, Amber
Yapa, Lankesha
Levchenko, Tanya
Gibbs, Richard A.
Cooper, Desmond W.
Speed, Terence P.
Fujiyama, Asao
Graves, Jennifer A. M.
O'Neill, Rachel J.
Pask, Andrew J.
Forrest, Susan M.
Worley, Kim C.
Title Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development
Formatted title
Genome sequence of an Australian kangaroo, Macropus eugenii, provides insight into the evolution of mammalian reproduction and development
Journal name Genome Biology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1474-760X
Publication date 2011-08-19
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1186/gb-2011-12-8-r81
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 12
Issue 8
Start page R81.1
End page R81.25
Total pages 25
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted abstract
We present the genome sequence of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, which is a member of the kangaroo family and the first representative of the iconic hopping mammals that symbolize Australia to be sequenced. The tammar has many unusual biological characteristics, including the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal, extremely synchronized seasonal breeding and prolonged and sophisticated lactation within a well-defined pouch. Like other marsupials, it gives birth to highly altricial young, and has a small number of very large chromosomes, making it a valuable model for genomics, reproduction and development.


The genome has been sequenced to 2 × coverage using Sanger sequencing, enhanced with additional next generation sequencing and the integration of extensive physical and linkage maps to build the genome assembly. We also sequenced the tammar transcriptome across many tissues and developmental time points. Our analyses of these data shed light on mammalian reproduction, development and genome evolution: there is innovation in reproductive and lactational genes, rapid evolution of germ cell genes, and incomplete, locus-specific X inactivation. We also observe novel retrotransposons and a highly rearranged major histocompatibility complex, with many class I genes located outside the complex. Novel microRNAs in the tammar HOX clusters uncover new potential mammalian HOX regulatory elements.


Analyses of these resources enhance our understanding of marsupial gene evolution, identify marsupial-specific conserved non-coding elements and critical genes across a range of biological systems, including reproduction, development and immunity, and provide new insight into marsupial and mammalian biology and genome evolution.
Keyword Distantly related marsupials
Whey acidic protein
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes This article is part of the series 'The tammar wallaby genome and transcriptome'. Article no. R81

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