Twenty-three species of Symphyla are recognized in Australia, distributed in five genera in two families. Inadequate material of three further species is in hand; these species are listed without formal description. Notes are presented on an as-yet unanalysed species complex within the genus Hanseniella Bagnall.
The genus Millotellina Jupeau is recorded for the first time from Australia. Ten species are described as new: Scolopendrellopsis (Symphylellopsis) Y, Symphyella A, B, IR, L, prA; Millotellina M; Hanseniella A, B, K. Two species are redescribed Hanseniella agilis Tiegs and Hanseniella minor Tiegs. Keys to the families, genera and species of Australian Symphyla are provided; families and genera occurring in Australia are redescribed. The subgeneric classification Scolopendrellopsis Bagnall is discussed and the evolution of the genus reviewed. Scolopendrellopsis Y sp.n. appears to be the most primitive known Scolopendrellid. The removal of the Polyxenellidae from the Symphyla is supported. The value of the distribution of the macrochaetae as a diagnostic character in the subdivision of Hanseniella is questioned.
The distribution patterns of species in Australia are outlined and ecological preferences discussed. The Australian fauna shows weak affinities with the Southeast Asian faunas. The plesiomorphic genus Scolopendrellopsis (Scolopendrellidae) is shown to have complex transantarctic relationships; a Gondwanaland origin for the Scolopendrellidae is suggested.