A study of the microbial quality of grey water and an evaluation of treatment technologies for reuse

Winward, Gideon P., Avery, Lisa M., Frazer-Williams, Ronnie, Pidou, Marc, Jeffrey, Paul, Stephenson, Tom and Jefferson, Bruce (2008) A study of the microbial quality of grey water and an evaluation of treatment technologies for reuse. Ecological Engineering, 32 2: 187-197. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.11.001


Author Winward, Gideon P.
Avery, Lisa M.
Frazer-Williams, Ronnie
Pidou, Marc
Jeffrey, Paul
Stephenson, Tom
Jefferson, Bruce
Title A study of the microbial quality of grey water and an evaluation of treatment technologies for reuse
Journal name Ecological Engineering   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0925-8574
1872-6992
Publication date 2008-02-01
Year available 2007
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.11.001
Volume 32
Issue 2
Start page 187
End page 197
Total pages 11
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The reuse of grey water for non-potable water applications is a potential solution for water-deprived regions worldwide. Adequate treatment of grey water prior to reuse is important to reduce the risks of pathogen transmission and to improve the efficacy of subsequent disinfection. This study investigated the presence of common pathogens in grey water and compared the pathogen removal performance of leading contender treatment technologies. The opportunistic pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in the grey water tested. Three configurations of constructed wetland, a membrane bioreactor (MBR), and a membrane chemical reactor (MCR) were evaluated for indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Clostridia, and heterotrophs) removal over a period of 2 years under conditions of low and high strength grey water influent. Total coliforms were found to be good indicators for P. aeruginosa, showing strong and significant Spearman's rank correlations in the influent grey water (rs = 0.77, P = 0.005) and treated effluents (rs = 0.81, P ≤ 0.001). The MBR provided the highest quality treated effluent and was the most robust treatment technology, remaining unaffected by an increase in influent grey water strength. Of the three constructed wetlands, the VFRB was the most reliable performer under low and high strength influent conditions, indicating aerobic unsaturated wetland to be the most suitable form of the technology for pathogen removal.
Keyword Grey water
Pathogen
Reed bed
Wetland
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ
Additional Notes Available online 21 December 2007

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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