Fabrication of spinel composites for sidewall of Al smelter application

Mukhlis, R. Z., Rhamdhani, M. A., Brooks, G. A. and Yan, X. Y. (2011). Fabrication of spinel composites for sidewall of Al smelter application. In: Jens Harre and Ulrich Waschki, Proceedings of EMC 2011 Volume 3. European Metallurgical Conference 2011, Düsseldorf, Germany, (865-880). 26-29 June 2011.

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Author Mukhlis, R. Z.
Rhamdhani, M. A.
Brooks, G. A.
Yan, X. Y.
Title of paper Fabrication of spinel composites for sidewall of Al smelter application
Conference name European Metallurgical Conference 2011
Conference location Düsseldorf, Germany
Conference dates 26-29 June 2011
Proceedings title Proceedings of EMC 2011 Volume 3
Journal name Proceedings - European Metallurgical Conference, EMC 2011
Place of Publication Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
Publisher GDMB
Publication Year 2011
Sub-type Fully published paper
ISBN 9783940276384
Editor Jens Harre
Ulrich Waschki
Volume 3
Start page 865
End page 880
Total pages 16
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted Abstract/Summary
A frozen layer of electrolyte is needed to protect the sidewall materials of Al Smelter in the Hall-Heroult process from corrosion. About 35 % of the heat loss is required to form the ledge and therefore, ledge-free sidewall is preferred as it potentially reduces the energy requirement of aluminium production. Potential materials for the ledge-free sidewall, namely NiFe2O4, NiAl2O4 and MgAl2O4 and their combinations have been identified in the previous work. The present work focused on the thermodynamic assessment of the materials in molten aluminium; and fabrication and joining of the materials. Thermodynamic analysis of the NixMg(1-x)Al2O4 spinels in molten aluminium were discussed. The equilibrium calculation of the NixMg(1-x)Al2O4 spinels in molten aluminium at 960 °C predict that the concentration of dissolved Mg in the aluminium melts are lower compared to Ni concentration for all the NixMg(1-x)Al2O4 being studied. In addition, the concentration of Ni in the aluminium melts in contact with the Ni0.5Mg0.5Al2O4 was about two times lower than the melts in contact with pure NiAl2O4, while the concentration of Mg was slightly decreased from 0.076 wt. % in the molten Al – pure MgAl2O4 system to about 0.071 wt. % in the molten Al – Ni0.5Mg0.5Al2O4 system. Experiments on joining the samples using reaction sintering method were also conducted. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy methods were used to characterize the samples. It was found that crack occurred on the interface of the joined NiFe2O4-MgAl2O4 and NiAl2O4-MgAl2O4 specimen. It has been shown that the crack can be minimised by the implementing intermediates in between the two materials. These intermediates were solid solutions of the spinels produced from mixing (with different compositions) the two materials being joined.  
Keyword Spinel
Aluminium production
Reaction sintering
Q-Index Code E1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Conference Paper
Collections: School of Chemical Engineering Publications
Official 2012 Collection
Citation counts: Scopus Citation Count Cited 0 times in Scopus Article
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Created: Wed, 19 Oct 2011, 16:52:22 EST by Dr Xiao-yong Yan on behalf of School of Chemical Engineering