Ethical and policy issues in using vaccines to treat and prevent cocaine and nicotine dependence

Hall, Wayne and Gartner, Coral (2011) Ethical and policy issues in using vaccines to treat and prevent cocaine and nicotine dependence. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24 3: 191-196. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328345922b

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Author Hall, Wayne
Gartner, Coral
Title Ethical and policy issues in using vaccines to treat and prevent cocaine and nicotine dependence
Journal name Current Opinion in Psychiatry   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0951-7367
1473-6578
Publication date 2011-05-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1097/YCO.0b013e328345922b
Open Access Status File (Author Post-print)
Volume 24
Issue 3
Start page 191
End page 196
Total pages 6
Place of publication Philadelphia, PA, United States
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Purpose of Review: To describe the rationale of vaccines against cocaine and nicotine, to review progress in developing and trialing vaccines to treat dependence on these drugs and to discuss some of the ethical issues that may arise from their use in legally coerced addiction treatment or for prevention of addiction in adolescents.
Recent Findings: Several randomized controlled trials of cocaine and nicotine vaccines for relapse prevention have produced mixed results. The studies demonstrate that it is possible to raise antibodies to cocaine and nicotine in humans. In abstinent patients who show high levels of drug antibodies, the rewarding effects of these drugs are attenuated. Phase 2 trials have not found nicotine vaccines to be superior to placebo because only a third of those vaccinated develop sufficient levels of antibody to block the effects of nicotine.
Summary: Vaccines are a novel approach to relapse prevention that need to more reliably induce immunity in a larger proportion of vaccinated patients if they are to protect against relapse after achieving abstinence. Vaccines are unlikely to prevent addiction in adolescents. Their use under legal coercion should only be considered after considerable experience with their use in voluntary patients.
Keyword Cocaine
Drug dependence
Drug vaccines
Ethics
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
Queensland Brain Institute Publications
Official 2012 Collection
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 13 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 18 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Wed, 19 Oct 2011, 08:20:15 EST by Coral Gartner on behalf of School of Public Health