Accumulation of ammonia and other potentially noxious gases on live export shipments from Australia to the Middle East

Pines, M. and Phillips, C.J.C. (2011) Accumulation of ammonia and other potentially noxious gases on live export shipments from Australia to the Middle East. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13 10: 2798-2807. doi:10.1039/c1em10425j


Author Pines, M.
Phillips, C.J.C.
Title Accumulation of ammonia and other potentially noxious gases on live export shipments from Australia to the Middle East
Journal name Journal of Environmental Monitoring   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1464-0325
Publication date 2011-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1039/c1em10425j
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 13
Issue 10
Start page 2798
End page 2807
Total pages 10
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Abstract Noxious gases on ships are irritant pollutants that have potential impacts on the comfort and health of both livestock and humans. Identification of environmental influences on the pollutants will assist live exporters to control them. Ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, as well as wet and dry bulb temperature, dew point, air speed and depth of faeces that the sheep stood in, were measured on two ship voyages in which sheep were transported from Australia to the Middle East. Daily measurements were made at 20 measurement locations over 12 days. At four sites, the mean ammonia concentration for the voyage was above the recommended maximum limit for the live export industry (25 ppm). The mean ammonia concentrations at the remaining 16 sites were below 18 ppm and considered safe. High ammonia concentrations were localised and occurred particularly on closed decks, as well as at the front of the vessel and near the engine block on open decks. Ammonia concentration on the open decks was correlated with cumulative wind during the voyage, air speed, dew point, wet bulb temperature and faecal pad depth, and on the closed decks with dew point, and wet and dry bulb temperature. Hydrogen sulphide (<1.8 ppm) and carbon dioxide (<1900 ppm) concentrations were low and did not pose a risk to animal or human welfare or health. The results suggest that high ammonia concentrations occur in those parts of the ship where there is insufficient ventilation and/or high temperatures and humidity.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2012 Collection
School of Veterinary Science Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 18 Oct 2011, 21:35:42 EST by Professor Clive Phillips on behalf of Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics