TTX, cations and spider venom modify avian muscle tone in vitro

Herzig, Volker, Hodgson, Wayne C. and Rowan, Edward G. (2011) TTX, cations and spider venom modify avian muscle tone in vitro. Journal of Venom Research, 2 1-5.

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Author Herzig, Volker
Hodgson, Wayne C.
Rowan, Edward G.
Title TTX, cations and spider venom modify avian muscle tone in vitro
Formatted title
TTX, cations and spider venom modify avian muscle tone in vitro
Journal name Journal of Venom Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2044-0324
Publication date 2011-09
Sub-type Article (original research)
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 2
Start page 1
End page 5
Total pages 5
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Library Publishing Media
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The demand for spider venom increases along with the growing popularity of venoms-based research. A deeper understanding of factors that influence the venom yield in spiders would therefore be of interest to both commercial venom suppliers and research facilities. The present study addresses the influence of several factors on the venom yield by systematically analyzing the data obtained from 1773 electrical milkings of the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix. Gender and ontogenesis were found to cause a major effect on the venom yield, as adult female C. tropix yielded significantly more venom than adult males. During ontogenesis, the venom yield increased with increasing size of the spiders. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the venom yield during the 50-day time interval preceding a molt was found. On the other hand, extended milking intervals (up to 449 days) and different states of nutrition (as an indication of how well the spider was fed) did not significantly affect the venom yield. Overall, the present findings suggest that venom production in spiders is carefully balanced between the demand for venom and the energy costs associated with its production. It can therefore be concluded that, in line with the venom optimization hypothesis, venom is a precious resource for spiders, which have implemented control mechanisms to ensure economical venom production and usage.
Keyword Spider venom yield
Milking interval
State of nutrition
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2012 Collection
Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
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Created: Thu, 13 Oct 2011, 17:31:31 EST by Volker Herzig on behalf of Institute for Molecular Bioscience