Penetration and spread of interferential current in cutaneous, subcutaneous and muscle tissues

Beatti, Albukhair, Rayner, Anton, Chipchase, Lucy and Souvlis, Tina (2011) Penetration and spread of interferential current in cutaneous, subcutaneous and muscle tissues. Physiotherapy, 97 4: 319-326. doi:10.1016/j.physio.2011.01.008


Author Beatti, Albukhair
Rayner, Anton
Chipchase, Lucy
Souvlis, Tina
Title Penetration and spread of interferential current in cutaneous, subcutaneous and muscle tissues
Journal name Physiotherapy   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0031-9406
1873-1465
Publication date 2011-12
Year available 2011
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.physio.2011.01.008
Volume 97
Issue 4
Start page 319
End page 326
Total pages 8
Place of publication Oxford, United Kingdom
Publisher Elsevier
Collection year 2012
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objectives
To investigate the penetration depth of interferential current (IFC) through soft tissue and the area over which it spreads during clinical application.

Design

A laboratory-based study of healthy participants.

Setting
A university research laboratory.

Participants
Twelve healthy subjects.

Interventions
Premodulated IFC at 90 Hz and ‘true’ IFC at frequencies of 4, 40 and 90 Hz were applied via four electrodes, in a quadrant setting, to the distal medial thigh of each participant on separate occasions.

Main outcome measure

Voltage induced by tested currents was measured at three locations (middle of the four electrodes, in line with one circuit and outside the four electrodes) and three depths (skin, subcutaneous and muscle tissues) using three Teflon-coated needle electrodes connected to a Cambridge Electronic Design data acquisition system.

Results
All voltages were greater at all depths and locations compared with baseline (P < 0.001): premodulated IFC [mean difference 0.112, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.065 to 0.160], 4 Hz (mean difference 0.168, 95% CI 0.106 to 0.229), 40 Hz (mean difference 0.165, 95% CI 0.107 to 0.223) and 90 Hz (mean difference 0.162, 95% CI 0.102 to 0.221). Voltages decreased with depth. Lower voltages of all currents were recorded in the middle of the four electrodes, with the highest voltage for ‘true’ IFC being recorded outside the four electrodes (mean difference 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.029; P = 0.011). The premodulated IFC had the highest voltage in line with one circuit.

Conclusions

IFC passed through soft tissues, with the highest voltages recorded in superficial tissue and the lowest voltages recorded in muscle. For ‘true’ IFC, the current spread outside the electrodes at higher voltages compared with the intersection of the four electrodes. The premodulated IFC had the highest voltage in line with one circuit. In terms of higher recorded voltages, ‘true’ IFCs were more efficient than the premodulated IFC when targeting deeper tissues. However, further studies with larger samples are required to confirm the results of this study.
Keyword Interferential therapy
Interferential current
Current depth penetration
Current spread
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Available online 20 April 2011. "In press, Accepted proof"

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: School of Mathematics and Physics
Official 2012 Collection
School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 5 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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Created: Thu, 13 Oct 2011, 13:04:25 EST by Dr Lucinda Chipchase on behalf of School of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences