Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological awareness and language abilities of 169 preterm (<33 weeks gestational age) and 141 fullterm born children aged between 5 and 12 years. Reading, spelling, phonological awareness skills, language and cognitive skills were assessed. The results indicate the preterm children were significantly poorer across all domains assessed in comparison to their fullterm classmates. However, the results of the preterm children do not significantly differ to the standardised assessment populations. Spelling was particularly vulnerable in preterm children and a higher number were identified with speech difficulties. The study also provided further evidence for the strong relationship that exists between language ability, phonological skills and literacy.