Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Through its action on macrophages, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin can trigger responses that are protective or injurious to the host. This review examines the effects of LPS on macrophages by following events from the cell surface to the nucleus. The involvement of protein tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C, G proteins, protein kinase A, ceramide-activated protein kinase, and microtubules in this process are reviewed. At the nuclear level, rel, C/EBP, Ets, Egr, fos, and jun family members have been implicated in activation of LPS-inducible gene expression.