The research regarding carmabis misusers seeking treatment is not well developed. The purpose of the study was to determine the application of Cognitive Social Learning Theory constructs to caimabis misusers seeking help. Principally, this included an examination of risk factors, effect expectancies, refusal self-efficacy and motivation on the level of consumption of cannabis in long-term heavy users. Subjects consisted of 61 long-term users (43 male and 18 female) presenting specifically to a treatment clinic for caimabis abuse. The age of participants ranged from 16 years to 44 years (Mean = 28 years), with the majority being single, educated and of Caucasian decent. Results suggest dependence to cannabis within this help seeking sample was strong. Current peers, recent psychopathology, effect expectancies and cannabis refusal self-efficacy all significantly predicted the quantity of caimabis consumed at baseline. The level of motivation of participants to cease their use of caimabis could not be determined by the indicators used. Frequency of consumption at follow-up was dependent upon baseline use. No psychological variables measured at baseline predicted consumption over time. As such, the results of this study suggest that the previously held view regarding the risk factors and the role of social learning constructs in the development of addictive behaviours was associated with cannabis related disorders in a clinical population at time of presentation. Factors associated with changes in consumption over time remain to be determined. The implications of this research in terms of the predictive utility of cognitive social learning theory constructs is discussed.