The Relationship between Problem Gambling, Positive Traits, And Negative Antecedents in a Chinese Sample

Jasmine Loo (2011). The Relationship between Problem Gambling, Positive Traits, And Negative Antecedents in a Chinese Sample PhD Thesis, School of Psychology, The University of Queensland.

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Author Jasmine Loo
Thesis Title The Relationship between Problem Gambling, Positive Traits, And Negative Antecedents in a Chinese Sample
School, Centre or Institute School of Psychology
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2011-03
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Professor Tian Po Oei
Dr Namrata Raylu
Total pages 293
Total colour pages 3
Total black and white pages 290
Subjects 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Abstract/Summary The aim of the current body of work is to bridge a gap in the literature by providing an evaluation of an integrated model of gambling among the Chinese with the incorporation of both positive and negative antecedents of problem gambling. This thesis made advancements in the assessment of Chinese problem gambling (PG), theoretical model and thus, it is hoped in interventions of PG. Stemming from Chapter 1, which is a comprehensive review of Chinese PG, we acknowledged that there is a lack of empirical research in this area and went on to address some of the questions raised in subsequent chapters. Thus, this thesis aimed to provide psychometric evaluations of two scales that have not been translated and validated in this ethnic group, test the predictive ability of a range of gambling correlated, and finally to test the validity of the cognitive-behavioural component of Sharpe’s (2002) biopsychosocial model of PG in a Chinese sample. The participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years). Different subsets of this sample were used for statistical analyses in each empirical chapter. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 aimed to test the validity and reliability of the Chinese translated versions of The Resilience Scale (TRS-C) and The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI-C), respectively. The TRS-C was found to be unstable across different ethnicities (i.e., in Spanish, Russian, and English language versions). Hence, the TRS-C was omitted from empirical analyses in subsequent chapters. Furthermore, further analyses revealed that resilience as measured by TRS-C was not a significant predictor of PG behaviour. The 9-item PGSI-C scale was found to have good psychometric properties and was utilised in subsequent empirical chapters. Chapter 5 aimed to examine the patterns of PG and the predictive ability of variables such as gambling-related cognitions, gambling urge, depression, anxiety, stress, and help-seeking attitudes in predicting Chinese PG. The overall rates of PG (measured with PGSI-C) and pathological gambling (measured with South Oaks Gambling Screen-Chinese version; SOGS-C) are higher in this Taiwanese Chinese sample as compared to participation rates in past prevalence research in other samples. Significant differences were found between PGSI-C groups (i.e., non-PG, low-risk, moderate-risk, and PG) in socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, and employment status. Erroneous gambling-related cognitions and overall level of depression, anxiety, and stress significantly predicted PG severity. Unique to PG research, Chapter 6 aimed to investigate the predictive ability of the positive psychological dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges among Chinese individuals. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Higher levels of gratitude and hope were found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative (PGI) predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The nature of the results obtained is further discussed in this chapter. The first in PG literature, Chapter 7 aimed to evaluate the validity of the cognitive-behavioural component of Sharpe’s (2002) biopsychosocial model with a combination of positive and negative factors in predicting PG. Path analyses were conducted to examine model fit. In the proposed framework, gambling-urge mediated the relationship of negative psychological states, hope, gratitude, and personal-growth initiative with gambling-related cognitions. Meanwhile, gambling-related cognitions mediated the relationship between gambling-urge and PG among the Chinese. The results evidenced the importance of gratitude in predicting PG among the Chinese via gambling-urge and gambling-related cognitions. In addition, hope in life (encompassing autonomy in devising plans for life goals and agency in thought processes) was found to have the same predictive pathway as gratitude on PG. Contrary to initial predictions, stronger personal-growth initiative (PGI) predicted higher PG severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The implications of these results in relation to PG literature was further elaborated in this chapter. The implications, strengths, weaknesses, and recommendations are discussed in each chapter and in the final chapter. These studies were unique investigations in both the general and Chinese PG literature. The final chapter (Chapter 8) provided a general discussion of the results obtained in this thesis and present a global overview, strengths, limitations, and direction for future research.
Keyword Problem Gambling
Problem Gamblers
positive psychology
theoretical model
help-seeking behaviour
Additional Notes Coloured pages: pages 147-149, Landscape: pages 78-85, 151, 180, 187, 190-191, 210

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Created: Thu, 01 Sep 2011, 16:45:13 EST by Ms Jasmine Loo on behalf of Library - Information Access Service