Aldosterone is an adrenal hormone that regulates sodium, fluid, and potassium balance. Jerome Conn first described the syndrome of autonomous and excessive aldosterone secretion or "primary aldosteronism." Contrary to the historical belief, recent studies indicate that primary aldosteronism is a common cause of hypertension with a prevalence of 5-10% among general hypertensive patients. Various animal models have demonstrated that aldosterone in association with a high salt diet results in target-organ inflammation and fibrosis. Similarly, cross-sectional and observational human studies have demonstrated the association of aldosterone with development and severity of hypertension, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, and metabolic syndrome. Several interventional studies have also demonstrated the beneficial effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in these disease processes, particularly hypertension, heart failure, and post myocardial infarction, further supporting the role of aldosterone in their pathogenesis. We review the role of aldosterone in these various cardiovascular disease processes along with potential mechanisms and treatment.