Inflammatory reactions in muscle after exercise: are humans and animals alike?

Peake, J. (2009). Inflammatory reactions in muscle after exercise: are humans and animals alike?. In: Book of Abstracts of the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. 14th Congress of the European College of Sports Science, Oslo, Norway, (487-487). 24-27 June 2009.

Author Peake, J.
Title of paper Inflammatory reactions in muscle after exercise: are humans and animals alike?
Conference name 14th Congress of the European College of Sports Science
Conference location Oslo, Norway
Conference dates 24-27 June 2009
Proceedings title Book of Abstracts of the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science
Publisher European College of Sport Science
Publication Year 2009
Sub-type Published abstract
ISBN 9788250204201
Start page 487
End page 487
Total pages 1
Language eng
Abstract/Summary Researchers have investigated inflammatory reactions to exercise-induced muscle damage in both humans and animals, using a variety of methods to induce muscle damage and assess inflammation. In humans, muscle damage is induced using downhill running, boxstepping, drop-jumps and exercise on an isokinetic dynamometer. In rats, mice and rabbits, muscle damage is induced using downhill running, electrically-stimulated lengthening muscle contractions, and local injection of cardiotoxin or snake venom. In humans, researchers have investigated alterations in leukocyte infiltration in skeletal muscle after exercise from several different perspectives, including the effects of sex, age, repeated bouts of muscle damage, exercise intensity, antioxidant supplements, and drugs (e.g., calcium channel blockers, analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Data from these studies indicate that sex, age and repeated bouts of muscle damage influence leukocyte infiltration. Research into the relationship between leukocyte infiltration, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and changes in muscular strength is inconsistent. The effects of multiple muscle biopsies on leukocyte infiltration following exercise-induced muscle damage are also questionable. In general, animal research has produced more consistent findings concerning the effects of sex, age, oestrogen, repeated bouts of muscle damage and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Animal models of muscle damage and inflammation provide some advantages over research involving humans. In particular, animal models allow the removal of whole muscle, and more direct interventions to modulate leukocyte infiltration (e.g., gene knockout, antibodies against macrophages and neutrophils, clodronate). Comparisons between humans and animals are limited, however, for several reasons. First, fibre type distribution, oxygen delivery, oxidative potential and enzyme activity differ between human and animal muscle tissue (1). Second, the physical stress resulting from downhill running in humans likely differs from the physical stress that caged animals experience when running1. Last, electrically-stimulated contractions and injections of cardiotoxin or snake venom typically induce considerably greater muscle damage than voluntary exercise1. In summary, we can potentially learn more about muscle damage and inflammation from animal studies than we can from human studies, but caution is advised when translating animal physiology to human physiology. 1. C. Malm. (2001). Acta Physiol Scand. 3: 233239.
Q-Index Code EX
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Conference Paper
Collection: School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences Publications
 
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Created: Thu, 14 Jul 2011, 10:07:05 EST by Christopher O'Keefe on behalf of School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences