Rufous oculocutaneous albinism in Southern African Blacks is caused by mutations in the TYRP1 gene

Manga, P., Kromberg, J. G. R., Box, N. F., Sturm, R. A., Jenkins, T. and Ramsay, M. (1997) Rufous oculocutaneous albinism in Southern African Blacks is caused by mutations in the TYRP1 gene. American Journal of Human Genetics, 61 5: 1095-1101. doi:10.1086/301603


Author Manga, P.
Kromberg, J. G. R.
Box, N. F.
Sturm, R. A.
Jenkins, T.
Ramsay, M.
Title Rufous oculocutaneous albinism in Southern African Blacks is caused by mutations in the TYRP1 gene
Journal name American Journal of Human Genetics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0002-9297
1537-6605
Publication date 1997-11
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1086/301603
Volume 61
Issue 5
Start page 1095
End page 1101
Total pages 7
Place of publication Cambridge, MA, United States
Publisher Cell Press
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is the most common autosomal recessive disorder among southern African Blacks. There are three forms that account for almost all OCA types in this region. Tyrosinase-positive OCA (OCA2), which is the most common, affects ~1/3,900 newborns and has a carrier frequency of ~1/33. It is caused by mutations in the P gene on chromosome 15. Brown OCA (BOCA) and rufous OCA (ROCA) account for the majority of the remaining phenotypes. The prevalence of BOCA is unknown, but for ROCA it is ~1/8,500. Linkage analysis performed on nine ROCA families showed that ROCA was linked to an intragenic marker at the TYRP1 locus (maximum LOD score = 3.80 at Θ = .00). Mutation analysis of 19 unrelated ROCA individuals revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 166 (S166x) in 17 (45%) of 38 ROCA chromosomes, and a second mutation (368delA) was found in an additional 19 (50%) of 38 chromosomes; mutations were not identified in the remaining 2 ROCA chromosomes. In one family, two siblings with a phenotypically unclassified form of albinism were found to be compound heterozygotes for mutations (S166X/368delA) at the TYRP1 locus and were heterozygous for a common 2.7-kb deletion in the P gene. These findings have highlighted the influence of genetic background on phenotype, in which the genotype at one locus can be influenced by the genotype at a second locus, leading to a modified phenotype. ROCA, which in southern African Blacks is caused by mutations in the TYRP1 gene, therefore should be referred to as 'OCA3', since this is the third locus that has been shown to cause an OCA phenotype in humans.
Keyword Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism
Intragenic deletion
Brown locus
P-gene
Melanocytes
Hybridization
Pigmentation
Tyrosinases
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
 
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