Resilience studies of an Indonesian coral reef: Ecological and social assessments in Karimunjawa National Park

Siham Afatta Kemal Taruc (2011). Resilience studies of an Indonesian coral reef: Ecological and social assessments in Karimunjawa National Park MPhil Thesis, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland.

Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
s4184493_mphil_finalthesis.pdf Final Thesis application/pdf 3.59MB 327
Author Siham Afatta Kemal Taruc
Thesis Title Resilience studies of an Indonesian coral reef: Ecological and social assessments in Karimunjawa National Park
School, Centre or Institute School of Biological Sciences
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2011-06
Thesis type MPhil Thesis
Open Access Status Other
Supervisor Dr Kenneth Roald Nies Anthony
Prof Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
Total pages 156
Total colour pages 25
Total black and white pages 131
Subjects 06 Biological Sciences
Abstract/Summary The global impact of climate change is threatening the resilience of coral reef ecosystems; yet, human-associated local scale disturbances are still driving the decline of reefs around the world. Tropical reefs are largely located in less-developing regions such as Indonesia that is within the center for coral biodiversity known as the Coral Triangle region. Coastal and islands communities of Indonesia are characteristically dependent to reef resources in terms of their livelihood, which requires local managers to be capable of identifying key information of the response of reef ecosystems to local disturbances and the subsequent impact on the livelihoods of the associated people. As local reef stressors is yet linked to the livelihood regime, managing reef also means finding socially adaptable solutions to reduce key social drivers that are giving potentially negative feedbacks to the ecosystem. The aim of this thesis was to incorporate the concept of social and ecological resilience in developing tools and providing options for marine protected area management in Karimunjawa islands. Karimunjawa National Park (KNP) was used as a study site to represent a conservation area where natural resources are subject to intense utilization and extractive human activities. Outcomes of this research were to address critical science gaps relevant to management resource imitations in KNP that has resulted in the inattention to the key local reef issues and critical indicators of socioeconomic vulnerability. Firstly, this research used ecological modelling as an approach to facilitate exploration in habitat response to scenarios of local disturbance, as local reef ecosystem data are low and sparse, along with limited resource to conduct rigorous biophysical measurements. Secondly, I used social assessments in the local community to evaluate relative resilience of resource user in terms of the social consequence of both future resource change and different marine reserve policy options. I used model projections to explore response of benthic reef habitat to various intensities and combination of local disturbances at a decadal basis. I found that gradual reduction of grazer reef fish and stochastic but frequent events of rock anchoring could potentially diminish recoverability of the majority of disrupted reef sites. Simulation results suggested that reef sites in ‘good’ category would benefit from priority of management investment in protection, given by their low sensitivity for any possibilities of grazing reduction in 30-year timeframe. On the other hand, the recoverability of ‘moderate’ to ‘poor’ reefs that were more sensitive to grazing loss, can be maintained of improved if the exploitation and management herbivorous reef species is not adequately addressed in the long- term. Despite the relatively patchy and stochastic impact of anchoring, the impact can potentially decelerate the recovery of reef site, regardless of any categories within a shorter 10-year timeframe simulated, This result suggested that immediate efforts is needed to stop or reduce local anchoring methods that are damaging to coral reef. In overall, the model study suggests that local management efforts to control herbivorous reef fish extraction and minimize anchor damage associated with fishing are vital to facilitate regeneration of unprotected reef sites in Karimunjawa National Park. The vulnerability and adaptation of resource user was also assessed by using indicators such as capacity to learn, flexibility and adaptation in livelihood and regulation, capacity to organize and asset. Key social findings showed that alternative livelihood portfolio is an essential development aspect of the local community to allow suspension or withdrawal extractive activities and establishment local conservation ethic. In regard of compliance to regulation, investing in communication may bring more benefit than improving resources for surveillance as this could indirectly result in reducing costs in enforcement by bridging collective action in resource management. Livelihood diversification strategy was a dominant choice for individuals to adapt to both current and future depletion of marine resources, both current and future. In response to resource change, facilitation by an external institution may be required to build platforms for community interaction to develop adaptive capacity and promote knowledge sharing and decision-making. Findings of local ecological knowledge suggested that there were a latent demand in the community to conserve resources, as individuals learned once the resources they depend on are limited or depleting. Findings of assets suggest that efforts to diversify physical assets that could generate less natural-resource-dependent occupation are critical parallel with the resource management framework. In general, this thesis demonstrates that model-based tool can function as adaptable tool for particular local management situation where scientific units and biophysical data are limited. Correspondingly, underpinning key characteristic of the resource user can facilitate local managers to develop community-driven resource management policies and regulation to reduce the apparent socioeconomic-related social resistance to regulation in KNP.
Keyword Socio-ecological Resilience
Developing region
Human Impacts
Ecological Modelling
Socio-economic Assessments
Coral Reef Management
marine protected area
Additional Notes Note: Page number sequence are relative to the PDF file pagination, NOT the actual page numbering printed in the document. 14, 20, 21, 25, 28, 36-39, 49, 50, 52, 53, 62, 65, 68, 69, 78, 85, 86, 137, 148-151

Document type: Thesis
Collections: UQ Theses (RHD) - Official
UQ Theses (RHD) - Open Access
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Mon, 20 Jun 2011, 14:52:32 EST by Mr Siham Afatta Kemal Taruc on behalf of Library - Information Access Service